The research was undertaken to analyze selected physicochemical and biological properties of soils from the buffer zones of a small watercourse located in the agricultural catchment area of North-Eastern Poland. Research points were located in the buffer zone. Samples were taken from the surface soil level. In samples were measured the pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, nitrates as well as
the emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the microscopic fungi (micromycetes) communities that inhabit the analyzed soils was also determined. It was found that the soil in the buffer zone, which is formed by shrubs and which separates arable land from the river, is more abundant in selected solutes, has a higher carbon dioxide emission, also has a richer quantitative and qualitative structure of fungi. It was found that soils from buffer zones are the place of dynamic processes that affect biological and chemical properties.
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