Perspectives of mobility development in remote areas attractive to tourists


innovative mobility solutions
sustainable mobility
transport policy
remote areas attractive to tourists
Delphi method

How to Cite

Kuźmicz, K., Ryciuk, U., Glińska, E., Kiryluk, H., & Rollnik-Sadowska, E. (2022). Perspectives of mobility development in remote areas attractive to tourists. Ekonomia I Środowisko - Economics and Environment, 80(1), 150–188.


This paper addresses the problem of transport systems in remote areas, defined by a set of constraints deriving from a sparse population, infrequent transportation location means stops and cost-effectiveness of the system. Remote areas attractive to tourists additionally require transportation services designed with respect to changeable demand and the necessity to provide transportation solutions limiting detrimental influence on the environment. This paper aims to identify and assess the perspectives for developing innovative mobility solutions for residents and tourists in remote areas in line with sustainable development and evaluate factors supporting or hindering the development of the selected perspectives. The results of a Delphi study with 23 experts from seven EU Member States, Russia and Norway, enabled the identification of factors shaping the future of mobility in peripheral areas, including IT-supported multimodal transport systems, demand-responsive transport and transport services tailored to the specific needs of different user groups.


Aguiléra, A., & Pigalle, E. (2021). The future and sustainability of carpooling practices. An identification of research challenges, Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(21).

Akash, & Kulkarni, P. (2021). Transformation of Mobility Industry by Advanced Digital Technologies, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1964(4), 042020.

Alyavina, E., Nikitas, A., & Njoya, E. T. (2020). Mobility as a service and sustainable travel behaviour: A thematic analysis study, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 73,

Anastasiadou, K. (2021). Sustainable Mobility Driven Prioritization of New Vehicle Technologies, Based on a New Decision-Aiding Methodology, Sustainability, 13(9), 4760.

Banister, D. (2008). The sustainable mobility paradigm, Transport Policy, 15(2), 73-80.

Barfod, M. B. (2018). Supporting sustainable transport appraisals using stakeholder involvement and MCDA, Transport, 33(4), 1052-1066.

Bauchinger, L., Reichenberger, A., Goodwin-Hawkins, B. (...), Hrabar, M., & Oedl-Wieser, T. (2021). Developing sustainable and flexible rural-urban connectivity through complementary mobility services, Sustainability, 13(3), 1280, 1-23.

Bell, D., & Sumper, E. (2015). The public transport stop as an access point for equal mobility in rural areas [Die haltestelle als ausgangspunkt für gleichberechtigte mobilität im ländlichen raum], SWS – Rundschau, 55(3), 355-374.

Berg, P. G., Ignatieva, M., Granvik, M., Hedfors, P., & Bergquist, D. (2015). Resilient Citylands - Green-blue-built transport systems in Baltic Sea Region cities, History of the Future: 52nd World Congress of the International Federation of Landscape Architects, IFLA 2015 - Congress Proceedings, 2015, 406-413.

Borén, S., Nurhadi, L., Ny, H., Robèrt, K.-H., Broman, G., & Trygg, L. (2017). A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development – Part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden, Journal of Cleaner Production, Part 1 140, 62-71.

Broome, K., Worrall, L., Fleming, J., & Boldy, D. (2012). Evaluation of flexible route bus transport for older people. Transport Policy, 21, 85–91.

Browne, D. J., O’Mahony, M., & Caulfield, B. (2012). How should barriers to alternative fuels and vehicles be classified and potential policies to promote innovative technologies be evaluated, Journal of Cleaner Production, 35, 140-151.

Buehler, R. (2018). Can public transportation compete with automated and connected cars? Journal of Public Transportation, 21(1), 7-18.

Byme, M. R. (2001). Impediments to consumer adoption of sustainable transportation Alternative fuel vehicles, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21(12), 1521-1538.

Campisi, T., Canale, A., Ticali, D., & Tesoriere, G. (2021). Innovative solutions for sustainable mobility in areas of weak demand. Some factors influencing the implementation of the DRT system in Enna (Italy), AIP Conference Proceedings, 2343, 090005.

Curiel-Esparza, J.,Mazario-Diez, J. L., Canto-Perello, J., & Martin-Utrillas, M. (2016). Prioritization by consensus of enhancements for sustainable mobility in urban areas, Environmental Science & Policy, 55, 248-257.

Currie, G., Richardson, T., Smyth, P., Vella-Brodick, D., Hine, J., Lucas, K., Stanley, J., Kinnear, R., & Stanley, J. (2009). Investigating links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being in Melbourne – preliminary results. Transport Policy, 16, 97-105.

Dalis, R. N., & Amudha, S. (2015). Managing electric vehicle sharing using Green Move, ICIIECS 2015 – 2015 IEEE International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems 2015, 7192890.

Dalkmann, H., Hutfilter, S., Vogelpohl, K., & Schnabel, P. (2008). Sustainable mobility in rural China, Journal of Environmental Management, 87(2), 249-261.

Dębkowska, K., Dymek, Ł., Kutwa, K., Perło, D., Perło, D., Rogala, W., Ryciuk, U., & Szewczuk-Stępień, M. (2022). The Analysis of Public Funds Utilization Efficiency for Climate Neutrality in the European Union Countries. Energies, 15(2), 581.

Delbosc, A., & Currie, G. (2011). The spatial context of transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being. Journal of Transport Geography, 19, 1130-1137.

Delventhal, M. J., & Parkhomenko, A. (2021). Spatial Implications of Telecommuting. http://www.andriiparkhom&

Dickinson, J.E., & Robbins, D. (2008). Representations of tourism transport problems in a rural destination. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1110-1121.

Dziaduch, I. (2021). The degree of sustainable development principles implementation in transportation based on an economic analysis of rail buses’ life cycle. Economics and Environment, 3(78), 8-29.

Egbue, O., & Long, S. (2012). Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: An analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions. Energy Policy, 48, 717-729.

Ejdys, J., & Gulc, A. (2020). Trust in Courier Services and Its Antecedents as a Determinant of Perceived Service Quality and Future Intention to Use Courier Service. Sustainability, 12(21). https://doi.org10.3390/su12219088

European Commision. (2019). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, The European Green Deal, COM(2019) 640 final,

European Commision. (2020). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy – putting European transport on track for the future, COM/2020/789 final.

European Commision. (2021). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, A long-term vision for the EU’s rural areas - Towards stronger, connected, resilient and prosperous rural areas by 2040, COM(2021) 345 final.

European Commission. (2018). A Clean Planet for all A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy. COM/2018/773 final,

Fagnant, D.J., & Kockelman, K. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: Opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 167-181.

Flipo, A., Sallustio, M., Ortar, N., & Senil, N. (2021). Sustainable mobility and the institutional lock-in: The example of rural France, Sustainability, 13(4), 2189, 1-21.

Fourman, M., Boulton, G., Buneman, P., Clarke, P., McLaughlin, S., Milne, A. D., Ritchie, I., Schaffer, M., & Purvis, P. (2010). Digital Scotland. Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Fournier, G., Baumann, M., Gasde, J., & Kilian-Yasin, K. (2018). Innovative mobility in rural areas – The case of the Black Forest, International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 18(3), 247-269,

Geurs, K.T., Gkiotsalitis, K., Fioreze, T., Visser, G., & Veenstra M. (2018). The potential of a Mobility-as-a-Service platform in a depopulating area in The Netherlands: An exploration of small and big data. Advances in Transport Policy and Planning, 2, 57-79.

Gil, A., Calado, H., & Bentz, J. (2011). Public participation in municipal transport planning processes – the case of the sustainable mobility plan of Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(6), 1309-1319. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.06.010.

Głuszek, E. (2021). Use of the e-Delphi Method to Validate the Corporate Reputation Management Maturity Model (CR3M). Sustainability, 13(21), 12019.

Goldman, T., & Gorham, R. (2006). Sustainable urban transport: Four innovative directions. Technology in Society, 28(1-2), 261-273.

Greaves, S., Backman, H., & Ellison, A. B. (2014). An empirical assessment of the feasibility of battery electric vehicles for day-to-day driving. Transportation Research Part A, 66, 226-237.

Grunicke, C., Schlüter, J., & Jokinen, J.-P. (2021). Evaluation methods and governance practices of new flexible passenger transport projects. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 38, 100575,

Gupta, A., Mittal, V., Peeters, J., & Van Nieuwerburgh, S. (2021). Flattening the curve: Pandemic‑induced revaluation of urban real estate. Journal of Financial Economics, In Press.

Gutiérrez, A., & Miravet, D. (2016). The Determinants of Tourist Use of Public Transport at the Destination. Sustainability, 8(9), 908.

Gutierrez, J. (2009). Transport and accessibility. In R. Kitchin & N. Thrift (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. (pp. 410-417). Oxford: Elsevier.

Hajduk, S. (2022). Multi-Criteria Analysis in the Decision-Making Approach for the Linear Ordering of Urban Transport Based on TOPSIS Technique. Energies, 15(1), 274.

Heikkilä, S. (2014). Mobility as a Service: A Proposal for Action for the Public Administration, Case Helsinki [Master Thesis]. Helsinki, Finland: Aalto University.

Hietanen, S. (2014, September 8). ‘Mobility as a Service’ – The new transport model? ITS & Transport Management Supplement. Eurotransport, 12, 2-4.

Hirschhorn, F., Paulsson, A., Sørensen, C. H., & Veeneman W. (2019). Public transport regimes and mobility as a service: Governance approaches in Amsterdam, Birmingham, and Helsinki. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 130, 178-191.

Hoerler, R., Haerri, F., & Hoppe, M. (2019). New solutions in sustainable commutingthe attitudes and experience of European stakeholders and experts in Switzerland. Social Sciences, 8(7), 220.

Holden, E., & Linnerud, K. (2011). Troublesome leisure travel: The contradictions of three sustainable transport policies. Urban Studies, 48(14), 3087-3106.

Hopkins, D. (2020). Sustainable mobility at the interface of transport and tourism: Introduction to the special issue on ‘Innovative approaches to the study and practice of sustainable transport, mobility and tourism’. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(2), 225-239.

International Labour Office. (2016, November 16). Global Dialogue Forum on the Challenges and Opportunities of Teleworking for Workers and Employers in the ICTs and Financial Services Sectors.

Jarocka, M., & Wang, H. (2018). Definition and classification criteria of logistics services for elderly. Engineering Management in Production and Services, 10(4), 65-75.

Jović, J., & Rankovic Plazinić, B. (2013). Transportation demand management in rural areas. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference “Towards a Humane City”, Novi Sad, Serbia, (pp. 11-23).

Kapur R. (2019). Problems and Challenges in Rural Areas,

Keller, A., Aguilar, A., & Hanss, D. (2018). Car Sharers’ interest in integrated multimodal mobility platforms: A diffusion of innovations perspective. Sustainability, 10(12), 4689.

Keseru, I., Coosemans, T., & Macharis, C. (2021), Stakeholders’ preferences for the future of transport inEurope: Participatory evaluation of scenarios combining scenario planning and the multi-actor multi-criteria analysis. Futures, 127, 102690.

Kiryluk, H., Glińska, E., Ryciuk, U., Vierikko, K., & Rollnik-Sadowska E. (2021). Stakeholders engagement for solving mobility problems in touristic remote areas from the Baltic Sea Region. PLoS ONE, 16(6), 1-28.

Knierim, L., & Schlüter J. Ch. (2021). The attitude of potentially less mobile people towards demand responsive transport in a rural area in central Germany. Journal of Transport Geography, 96, 103202.

Kononiuk, A., Siderska, J., Gudanowska, A. E., & Dębkowska, K. (2021). The Problem of Labour Resources as a Development Barrier to the Polish Economy – the Application of the Delphi Method. WSEAS Transactions on Business and Economics, 18, 139-151.

Kuzmicz, K. A., & Pesch, E. (2017). Prerequisites for the modelling of empty container supply chains. Engineering Management in Production and Services, 9, 28-36.

Kuzmicz, K.A., & Pesch, E. (2019). Approaches to empty container repositioning problems in the context of Eurasian intermodal transportation, Omega – the International Journal of Management Science, 85, 194-213.

Kuźmicz, K. A. (2015). Benchmarking in university toolbox, Business, Management and Education, 13(1), 158-174.

Li, X., & Quadrifoglio, L. (2010). Feeder transit services: choosing between fixed and demand responsive policy. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 18(5), 770-780.

Lieven, T. (2014). Policy measures to promote electric mobility – A global perspective. Transportation Research Part A, 82, 78-93.


Linstone, H. A., & Turoff, M. (2011). Delphi: A brief look backward and forward, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 78(9), 1712-1719.

Linstone, H.A., & Turoff, M. (2002). Introduction. In H.A. Linstone & M. Turoff (Eds.). The Delphi Method. Techniques and Applications. (pp. 3-5). Murray Turoff and Harold A. Linstone.

Litman, T. (2018). Evaluating Accessibility for Transport Planning: Measuring People’s Ability to Reach Desired Goods and Activities. Victoria: Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Liu, S., Yamamoto, T., Yao, E., & Nakamura, T. (2021). Examining public transport usage by older adults with smart card data: a longitudinal study in Japan. Journal of Transport Geography, 93, 103046.

López-Iglesias, E., Peón, D., & Rodríguez-Álvarez, J. (2018). Mobility innovations for sustainability and cohesion of rural areas: a transport model and public investment analysis for Valdeorras (Galicia, Spain). Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3520-3534.

Mann, A., Klopsch, K., Bieker, L., & Wölki, M. (2014). Do sparsely populated rural areas have the potential for the use of electric vehicles? WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 138, 223-234.

MARA – Mobility and Accessibility in Rural Areas, cited on 05.11.2020, available at:

Marchais-Roubelat, A., & Roubelat, F. (2011). The Delphi method as a ritual: inquiring the Delphi oracle. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 78(9), 1491-1499.

Masmoudi, M. A., Kuzmicz, K. A., Pesch, E., Demir, E., & Hosny, M. (2020). Container truck transportation routing as a Mixed Fleet Heterogeneous Dial-a-Ride Problem, MATEC Web of Conferences, 312, 02005.

McNamara, D., & Caulfield, B. (2011). Determining the welfare effects of introducing a cap-and-share scheme on rural commuters. Transportation Research, 16, 547-553.

Melander, L. (2018), Scenario development in transport studies: Methodological considerations and reflections on delphi studies, Futures, 96, 68-78.

Miller, H. J. (2020). Movement analytics for sustainable mobility, Journal of Spatial Information Science, 20, 115-123.

Mounce, R., Beecroft, M., & Nelson, J.D. (2020). On the role of frameworks and smart mobility in addressing the rural mobility problem, Research in Transportation Economics 83,100956.

Nalevanko, A. M., & Henry, A. (2001). Advanced Public Transportation Systems for Rural Areas: Where Do We Start? How Far Should We Go? TCRP Project B-17: Final Report.

Nazarko, J. (2013). Regionalny foresight gospodarczy. Metodologia i instrumentarium badawcze, Warszawa: Związek Pracodawców Warszawy i Mazowsza.

Nazarko, J., Ejdys, J., Halicka, K., Nazarko, Ł, Kononiuk, A., & Olszewska A. (2017). Factor Analysis as a Tool Supporting STEEPVL Approach to the Identification of Driving Forces of Technological Innovation, Procedia Engineering, 182, 491-496.

Nilsson, J. H. (2018). Mobility and regionalisation: Changing patterns of air traffic in the baltic sea region in connection to European integration, Geographia Polonica, 91(1), 77-93,

OECD, International Transport Forum. Connecting Remote Communities Summary and Conclusions. (2021).

OECD, Productivity gains from teleworking in the post COVID-19 era: How can public policies make it happen? (2020). Policy Brief, 7, available at:

Paradowska, M. (2021). Remote study and deconsumption – sustainable mobility versus (un)necessary university commuting, Ekonomia i Środowisko, 3(78), 44-72.

Pesch, E., & Kuzmicz, K. A. (2020). Non-approximability of the single crane container transhipment problem, International Journal of Production Research, 58(13), 3965-3975.

Pezzini, M. (2000). Rural policy lessons from OECD countries, Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 85 (Q III), 47-57.

Piecyk, M., & McKinnon, A. C. (2010). Forecasting the carbon footprint of road freight transport in 2020, International Journal of Production Economics, 128(1), 31-42.

Politis, I., Papaioannou, P., Basbas, S., & Dimitriadis, N. (2010). Evaluation of a bus passenger information system from the users’ point of view in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, Research in Transportation Economics, 7 , 1-7.

Porru, S., Misso, F. E., Pani, F. E., & Repetto, C. (2020). Smart mobility and public transport: Opportunities and challenges in rural and urban areas, Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 7(1), 88-97.

Pucher, J., & Renne, J. L. (2005). Rural mobility and mode choice: evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. Transportation, 32, 165-186.

Radziszewski, P., Nazarko, J., Vilutiene, T., Dębkowska, K., Ejdys, J., Gudanowska, A., Halicka, K., Kilon, J., Kononiuk, A, Kowalski, K. J., Król, J. B., Nazarko, Ł., & Sarnowski, M. (2016), Future trends in road pavement technologies development in the context of environmental protection, Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 11(2), 160-168.

Rostami, S. (2005). Application of the transport needs concept to rural New South Wales: a GIS-based analysis. [Doctoral dissertation]. Faculty of Built Environment, University of New South Wales.

Samek Lodovici, M. (Ed.). (2021). The impact of teleworking and digital work on workers and society. Special focus on surveillance and monitoring, as well as on the mental health of workers. Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life

Policies Directorate-General for Internal Policies.

Santos, G. (2018). Sustainability and shared mobility models, Sustainability, 10(9), 3194.

Schippl, J., & Truffer, B. (2020). Directionality of transitions in space: Diverging trajectories of electric mobility and autonomous driving in urban and rural settlement structures, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 37, 345-360,

Schlüter, J., Bossert, A., Rössy, P., & Kersting, M. (2021). Impact assessment of autonomous demand responsive transport as a link between urban and rural areas. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 39, 100613.

Schlüter, J., & Weyer, J. (2019). Car sharing as a means to raise acceptance of electric vehicles: An empirical study on regime change in automobility, Transportation Research Part F 60, 185-201.

Schuckmann, S. W., Gnatzy, T., Darkow, I. L., & von der Gracht, H. A. (2012). Analysis of factors influencing the development of transport infrastructure until the year 2030 – A Delphi based scenario study. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 79(8), 1373-1387.

Scott, M., Hopkins, D., & Stephenson, J. (2014). Understanding sustainable mobility: The potential of electric vehicles. Proceedings – IEEE International Conference on Mobile Data Management, 2, 6916871, 27-30.

Shergold, I., & Parkhurst, G. (2010). Operationalising ‘sustainable mobility’: the case of transport policy for older citizens in rural areas. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(2), 336-339.

Siefkes, T. (2010). ECO4 – Bombardier’s modular portfolio of innovative solutions for sustainable mobility [ECO4 – Bombardiers modulares Portfolio innovativer Lösungen für nachhaltige Mobilität], ZEVrail, 134(9), 342-350.

Skulmoski, G. J., Hartman, F. T., & Krahn J. (2007). The Delphi Method for Graduate Research. Journal of Information Technology Education, 6, 1-21.

Smith, G. (2021). Mobility as a Service and Public Transport. In Mulley, C., Nelson, J., & Ison, S. (Eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Public Transport. (pp. 33-45). London: Routledge.

Smith, G. (2021). Making Mobility-as-a-Service: Towards Governance Principles and Pathways. Chalmers University of Technology.

Soder, M., & Peer, S. (2018). The potential role of employers in promoting sustainable mobility in rural areas: Evidence from Eastern Austria. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 12(7), 541-551.

Subramanian, V., & Dayakar, S. (2021). Self-Governing Commute for People with Disability in Autonomous/Shared Mobility by Universal Design Process. SAE International in United States, Technical Papers.

Szpilko, D. (2014). The use of Delphi method in the process of building a tourism development strategy in the region. Economics and Management, 4, 330-346.

Szymańska, E., Panfiluk, E., & Kiryluk, H. (2021). Innovative Solutions for the Development of Sustainable Transport and Improvement of the Tourist Accessibility of Peripheral Areas: The Case of the Białowieża Forest Region. Sustainability, 13(4), 2381, 1-23.

Tekil-Ergün, S., Pesch, E., & Kuźmicz, K.A. (2022). Solving a Hybrid Mixed Fleet Heterogeneous Dial-a-Ride Problem in Delay-Sensitive Container Transportation. International Journal of Production Research, 60(1), 297-323.

Thi Le, D.-T. (2014). Tourist use of public transport at destinations – the case of Munich. [Doctoral dissertation]. Echnische Universität München, 77246/34

Tretheway, M., Andriulaitis, R., & Kositsky, J. (2021). Northern and Arctic Air Connectivity in Canada, International Transport Forum Discussion Paper, 3.

United Nations (2021, September 8), World Population Ageing 2019: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/430). Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Wang, W., Miao, W., Liu, Y., Deng, Y., & Cao, Y. (2021). The Impact of COVID-19 on the Ride-Sharing Industry and Its Recovery: Causal Evidence from China, Transportation Research Part A, 155, 128-141.

Webb, J. (2019). The future of transport: Literature review and overview. Economic Analysis and Policy, 61(C), 1-6.

Wee B., & Witlox, F. (2021). COVID-19 and its long-term effects on activity participation and travel behaviour: A multiperspective view, Journal of Transport Geography, 95, 103144,

Yan, X, Zhao, X., Han Y., Van Hentenryck, P., & Dillahunt T. (2021). Mobility-on-demand versus fixed-route transit systems: An evaluation of traveler preferences in low-income communities. Transportation Research Part A, 148, 481-495. https: //

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment


Download data is not yet available.