Shaping sustainable energy in a circular economy. Case study of EU and Western Bloc countries 2013-2020


energy policy
circular economy
synthetic measure (CRITIC-TOPSIS)

How to Cite

Dziekański, P., Popławski, Łukasz, Sułek, A., & Mínguez Vera, A. (2024). Shaping sustainable energy in a circular economy. Case study of EU and Western Bloc countries 2013-2020. Economics and Environment, 89(2), 808.


The countries must take steps to modernize the energy economy. This is important for countries whose primary energy source structure is based on coal consumption. Energy is a key factor in meeting human needs, including economic activity. The aim of the study is to present and assess the spatial differentiation of energy policies under circular economy conditions at the level of EU countries (including former Eastern Bloc countries). To achieve the objective, a literature analysis, synthetic measures, and statistical analysis were used. Empirical data was collected in spatial terms for EU countries in 2013 and 2020. Research confirms that there is a positive change in the energy policy aspect in EU countries in 2020 compared to 2013. The group with the highest measure of synthetic energy policy included Finland, Sweden, and Austria, while the weakest were Luxembourg and the Eastern Bloc countries of Bulgaria and Poland. The former EU countries are mostly in a better position in terms of energy policy than the Eastern Bloc countries.



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