Analysis of the types and effects of possible errors in the implementation of ecological reusable packaging into e-commerce using FMEA


ecological packaging
supply chain
sustainable development

How to Cite

Tokarski, D., & Motowidlak, U. (2023). Analysis of the types and effects of possible errors in the implementation of ecological reusable packaging into e-commerce using FMEA. Economics and Environment, 85(2), 221–235.


One of the most important features of the e-commerce logistics process is its reliability. It is obtained by properly planning the process and then ensuring its course is in accordance with the developed plan and all procedures. As the data show, most problems appear at the stage of designing and preparing products and processes for implementation. Detecting potential causes of non-compliance can help prevent unwanted events from occurring. The aim of the article is to identify and assess the risk for the process and product in terms of the possibility of using reusable packaging in e-commerce logistics services provided by ARVATO Polska Sp. z o. o. with its registered office in Warsaw, taking into account preventive and corrective actions in relation to the risk. Through the use of research methodology in the form of risk mapping, 13 potential risk factors were identified, and recommendations were formulated to avoid and mitigate the effects of disruptions. Among the identified risk factors, the quality of the packaging itself, including the appropriate packaging material and the level of packaging flexibility, turned out to be the most important. The conclusions of the study may have practical applications to improve the functioning of cost-effective and environmentally friendly e-commerce logistics. The importance of these analyses increases in the assessment of innovative solutions that can be considered as the use of ecological returnable packaging in e-commerce logistics. Their goal is to identify and eliminate possible packaging failures on the market.


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