Modeling of water age changes in water distribution systems in time and space
PDF

Keywords

mathematical model
water distribution system
bacteriological properties
fresh water flows
water ages

How to Cite

Trębicka, A. (2023). Modeling of water age changes in water distribution systems in time and space . Ekonomia I Środowisko - Economics and Environment, 83(4), 91–102. https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2022.83.4.498

Abstract

The paper presents a particularly important research variant in the process of modelling water distribution systems (WDS), which is the age of water. The age of the water in the pipes is a parameter that determines the freshness of the water. The main goal of the presented research was to analyse changes in water age by observing the basic parameters: pressure and water flow. As a result of the assumed simulations, potential places of secondary contamination were distinguished. The result of solving the situation was the introduction of all works aimed at eliminating and improving the negative changes by much more frequent monitoring of water in this area for physicochemical and bacteriological properties and regular flushing of pipelines. The research is carried out based on the mathematical model of the water supply network. The Epanet software is used as a research tool, which allows modelling changes in the age of water in the entire water distribution system over time. The basis of the conducted research became the time factor, which plays a particularly important role in the process of managing the water distribution system. Taking into account the time, it was observed how much water remains on a given section from the moment it flows from the inlet and is mixed with water already present throughout the network. A number of simulation options were analysed in terms of the operation of the water distribution system, where the key problem was water stagnation. It should be noted that stagnation of water is particularly dangerous in the case of WDS, the obtained results showed visible places on the tested model. Simulations lasting more than 8, 10 days showed a clear deterioration in its quality. The above studies are of particular importance from the point of view of managing the efficiency of the water supply network. The analysis of water in water supply systems, stagnating and thus ageing, shows that the efficiency of the system significantly decreases. The variability of conditions in the water distribution system also makes the performance of WDS, and especially of pumping units, variable.

https://doi.org/10.34659/eis.2022.83.4.498
PDF

References

Blokker, E. J. M., Furnass, W. R., Machell, J., Mounce, S. R., Schaap, P. G., & Boxall, J. B. (2016). Relating Water Quality and Age in Drink-ing Water Distribution Systems Using Self-Organising Maps. Environments, 3(2), 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments3020010

Butler, D., Ward, S., Sweetapple, C., Astaraie-Imani, M., Diao, K., Farmani, R., & Fu, G. (2016). Reliable, resilient and sustainable water management: the Safe & SuRe approach. Global Challenges, 1(1), 63-77 https://doi.org/10.1002/gch2.1010

Diao, K. G., Barjenbruch, M., & Bracklow, U. (2010). Study on the Impacts of Peaking Factors on a Water Distribution System in Germany. Water Supply, 10(2), 165-172. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2010.168

Diao, K. G., Zhou, Y. W., & Rauch, W. (2012). Automated creation of district metered areas boundaries in water distribution systems. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 139, 184-190.

Filion, Y. (2008). Impact of Urban Form on Energy Use in Water Distribution Systems. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14(4), 337–346. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0342(2008)14:4(337)

Filion, Y., Adams, B., & Karney, B. (2007). Correlation of Demands in Water Distribution Network Design. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133(2), 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(2007)133:2(137)

Gora, S. (2011). Water Quality and Demand on Public Water Supplies with Variable Flow Regimes and Water Demand. Canada: CBCL Limited: Halifax, NS.

Kanakoudis, V., & Gonelas, K. (2019). Accurate water demand spatial allocation for water networks modelling using a new approach. Urban Water Journal, 12(5), 362-379. https://doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2014.900811

Kurek, W., & Ostfeld, A. (2013). Multi-Objective Optimization of Water Quality, Pumps Operation, and Storage Sizing of Water Distribution Systems. Journal Environmental Management, 115, 189-197. https://10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.11.030

Machell, J., & Boxall, J. (2014). Modeling and Field Work to Investigate the Relationship between the Age and the Quality of Drinking Water at Customer’s Taps. J. Water Resour. Plan. Manag., 138(6), 624-638.

Marchi, A., Salomons, E., Ostfeld, A., Kapelan, Simpson, A. R. et al. (2012). The Battle of the Water Networks II (BWN–II). Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 140(7).

Masters, S., Parks, J., Atassi, A., & Edwards, M.A. (2015). Distribution System Water Age Can Create Premise Plumbing Corrosion Hotspots. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 559. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4747-4

Muranho, J., Ferreira, A., Sousa, J., Gomes, A., & Sá Marques, A. (2012). WaterNetGen: an EPANET extension for automatic water distribution networks models generation and pipe sizing. Water Science & Technology Water Supply, 12(1), 117-123. DOI:10.2166/ws.2011.121

Ostfeld, A., Salomons, E., Ormsbee, L., Uber, J. G., Bros, C. M., Kalungi, P., Burd, R., Zazula-Coetzee, B., Belrain, T., Kang, D., et al. (2011). The Battle of the Water Calibration Networks (BWCN). J. Water Res. Plan. Manag. 138(5), 523-532.

Preis, A., Allen, M., & Whittle, A. J. (2010). On-Line Hydraulic Modeling of a Water Distribution System in Singapore. Proceedings of Water Distribution System Analysis, USA.

Prest, E. I., Schaap, P. G., Besmer, M. D., & Hammes, F. (2021). Dynamic Hydraulics in a Drinking Water Distribution System Influence Suspended Particles and Turbidity, But Not Microbiology. Water, 13(1), 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13010109

Rossman, L. A. (2000). EPANET 2 Users Manual. Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Shokoohi, M., Tabesh, M., Nazif, S., & Dini, M. (2017). Water Quality Based Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Water Distribution Systems. Water Resour. Manag., 31(1), 93-108.

Sitzenfrei, R., Möderl, M., Hellbach, C., & Rauch, W. (2011). Application of a Stochastic Test Case Generation for Water Distribution Systems. Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, USA, 113-120.

Sitzenfrei, R., Möderl, M., Mair, M., & Rauch, W. (2012). Modeling Dynamic Expansion of Water Distribution Systems for New Urban Developments. Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, USA, 3186-3196.

Tamminen, S., Ramos, H., & Covas, D. (2008). Water Supply System Performance for Different Pipe Materials Part I: Water Quality Analysis. Water Resour. Manag., 22, 1579–1607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-008-9244-x

Walski, T. M., Chase, D. V., Savic, D. A., Grayman, W., Beckwith, S., & Koelle, E. (2003). Advanced Water Distribution Modeling and Management. Civil and Environmental Engineering and Engineering Mechanics Faculty Publications. Paper 18. http://ecommons.udayton.edu/cee_fac_pub/18

World Health Organization. (2017). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Fourth Edition Incorporating the First Addendum. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.