Modeling of water age changes in water distribution systems in time and space


mathematical model
water distribution system
bacteriological properties
fresh water flows
water ages

How to Cite

Trębicka, A. (2023). Modeling of water age changes in water distribution systems in time and space . Economics and Environment, 83(4), 91–102.


The paper presents a particularly important research variant in the process of modelling water distribution systems (WDS), which is the age of water. The age of the water in the pipes is a parameter that determines the freshness of the water. The main goal of the presented research was to analyse changes in water age by observing the basic parameters: pressure and water flow. As a result of the assumed simulations, potential places of secondary contamination were distinguished. The result of solving the situation was the introduction of all works aimed at eliminating and improving the negative changes by much more frequent monitoring of water in this area for physicochemical and bacteriological properties and regular flushing of pipelines. The research is carried out based on the mathematical model of the water supply network. The Epanet software is used as a research tool, which allows modelling changes in the age of water in the entire water distribution system over time. The basis of the conducted research became the time factor, which plays a particularly important role in the process of managing the water distribution system. Taking into account the time, it was observed how much water remains on a given section from the moment it flows from the inlet and is mixed with water already present throughout the network. A number of simulation options were analysed in terms of the operation of the water distribution system, where the key problem was water stagnation. It should be noted that stagnation of water is particularly dangerous in the case of WDS, the obtained results showed visible places on the tested model. Simulations lasting more than 8, 10 days showed a clear deterioration in its quality. The above studies are of particular importance from the point of view of managing the efficiency of the water supply network. The analysis of water in water supply systems, stagnating and thus ageing, shows that the efficiency of the system significantly decreases. The variability of conditions in the water distribution system also makes the performance of WDS, and especially of pumping units, variable.


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