The dynamics of energy transition in European countries in years 2004-2021


energy efficiency
dependence on energy imports
renewable energy sources
energy transition

How to Cite

Piekut, M. (2024). The dynamics of energy transition in European countries in years 2004-2021 . Economics and Environment, 87(4), 634, 1–27.


This study delves into the critical contemporary issue of global energy transition, focusing on European countries from 2004 to 2021. Its objective is to identify countries with similar rates of energy transition, utilising statistical measures and clustering techniques on Eurostat data. The paper explores energy efficiency, renewable sources, and energy import reliance. Findings show reduced primary energy consumption in EU-27, varied energy efficiency trends, and notable differences in renewables and import dependence. Clustering countries unveil diverse transition speeds. Policymakers can tailor effective strategies based on regional challenges and successes, fostering a nuanced understanding of economic, social, and environmental dynamics in the energy transition. This analysis offers valuable insights for informed policy-making in the complex landscape of global energy transformation.


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