In developed countries, the main burden of waste management rests on the organised (formalised) and massive municipal waste management system. The functioning of these systems is regulated by legislation at the local, national, and international levels. At the same time, some waste fractions are entirely or partially excluded from this system (e.g. bulky waste, second-hand clothing, food, green waste, or metals). As in developing countries, they are partially managed through informal undertakings, the organisation of which, including the mode of operation, scale, or spatial coverage, are diversified. The formal system is organised hierarchically and strictly regulated by law. On the other hand, informal activities are governed by terms and conditions or sets of everyday rules. Thus, municipal waste management in developed countries forms a complex mosaic of activities, organisations and institutions that contribute to reducing waste and its nuisance.
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