Sustainable development in rural areas in the perspective of a decade of ecosystem restoration


rural areas
limiting anthropopression
Decade of Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030)

How to Cite

Kiryluk, A., & Kostecka, J. (2023). Sustainable development in rural areas in the perspective of a decade of ecosystem restoration . Ekonomia I Środowisko - Economics and Environment, 83(4), 117–148.


Rural areas are included in the concept of sustainable development, and they are characterised by a great variety of flora, fauna, and habitats; apart from the function of food production, they can fulfil numerous functions related to the protection and shaping of the environment. The paper characterises the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. Selected parameters of agricultural plant production were described for the European Union, the Netherlands, and Poland. Factors significant in the context of the United Nations Decade of Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030) were indicated. The features of agriculture in Hajnówka county (where over 50% of the area is under protection) were selected as a reference point for the expected results, treating it as a model of an organisation for the harmonious development of agriculture in the 21st century. The study highlights the importance of biodiversity in rural areas for building a sustainable human welfare strategy. The use of ecosystem services will be permanent when the elements of the Decade of Ecosystem Restoration are widely disseminated and rooted in the civic consciousness of the inhabitants of Poland and similar spaces in Europe. This decade must be advertised as widely as possible for this to happen, writing about it in various contexts.


ARiMR. (2022, May). Cultivated areas in communes. Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture.

Arisha, H. M., & Bradisi, A. (1999). Effect of mineral fertilisers and organic fertilisers on potato growth, yield and quality under sandy soil conditions. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, 26, 391-405.

Balmford, A., Fisher, B., Green, R. E., Naidoo, R., Strassburg, B., Turner, R. K., & Rodrigues, A. S. L. (2011). Bringing ecosystem services into the real world: an operational framework for assessing the economic consequences of losing wild nature. Environ. Resour. Econ., 48, 161-175.

Barbieri, P., Pellerin, S., & Nesme, T. (2017). Comparison of crop rotation between organic and conventional farming. Scientific Reports, 7, 13761.

BESH. (2022, May 27). 1st Climate Farming Congress. Bäuerliche Erzeugergemeinschaft Schwäbisch Hall.

Biermann, F. (2012). Planetary boundaries and earth system governance: Exploring the links. Ecological Economics, 81, 4-9. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.02.016

Biesiacki, A., Kuś, J., & Madej, A. (2004). Assessment of natural conditions for agricultural production in Podlaskie Voivodeship. Wyd. IUNG Puławy.

Bogactwo wsi. (2022, May 14). Biodiversity - the wealth of the countryside. Project.

Butt, K. R., & Kostecka, J. (2019). Opinions of English students on the term “ecological violence”. Polish Journal for Sustainable Development, 23(1), 7-13.

Chmielecki, W. (1956). A farm guide. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne.

COP. (2012). Indicator framework for the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.

Czyżewski, B., & Kryszak, Ł. (2017). The Influence of Farming Types on Greenhouse Gases Emissions. Wieś i Rolnictwo, 1(174), 99-122.

Dearing, J. A., Braimoh, A. K., Reenberg, A., Turner, B. L., & Van der Leeuw, S. (2010). Complex land systems: the need for long time perspectives to assess their future. Ecol. Soc., 15(4), 21.

Directive (EU) 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, Pub. L. No. 31996L0061, 257 OJ L (2014).

Directive (EU) 2009/28/EC of 23 April 2009 On the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, Pub. L. No. 32009L0028, 140 OJ L (2009).

Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of 14 December 2016 On the reduction of domestic emissions of certain types of atmospheric pollutants amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC, Pub. L. No. 32016L2284, 344 OJ L. (2016).

EC. (2022, April 4). Farm to Fork strategy. Food Safety.

Erisman, J. W., van Eekeren, N., Wit, J., Koopmans, Ch., Cuijpers, W., Oerlemans, N., Ben, J., & Koks, B. J. (2016). Agriculture and biodiversity: a better balance benefits both. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 1(2), 157-174.

Europarc Federation. (2022, April 26). EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030.

Eurostat. (2022, April 21). Ammonia emissions from agriculture (EEA).

Eurostat. (2022, May 16). Area for organic farming.

FAOSTAT. (2022, May 26). Emissions Totals. Selected Indicators.

FAOSTAT. (2022, May 26). Fertilizers Indicators.

FAOSTAT. (2022, May 26). Good decisions can only be made with the right data.

FAOSTAT. (2022, May 26). Land use indicator.

FAOSTAT. (2022, May 26). Pesticides Indicators.

Feledyn-Szewczyk, I., Kazimierczak, R, Rembiałkowska, E, & Staniak, M. (2016). Biodiversity of rural areas - good agricultural practices. Warszawa: Fundacja Ziemia I Ludzie.

Gołębiewska, B., Chlebicka, A., & Maciejczak, M. (2016). Agriculture and the environment. Biodiversity and environmental innovations in the development of agriculture. Warszawa: SGGW.

Gonthier, D., Ennis, K., Farinas, S., Hsieh, H. Y., Iverson, A., Batary, P., Sjögren, J., Tscharntke, T., Cardinale, B., & Perfecto, I. (2014). Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires multi-scale approach. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1791).

GUS. (2022, May 19). Local Data Bank. BDL.

Hardt, J. N. (2017). Environmental Security in the Anthropocene: Assessing Theory and Practice. Routledge Publisher.

Henchion, M., Moloney, A. P., Hyland, J., Zimmermann, J., & McCarthy, S. (2021). Trends for meat, milk and egg consumption for the next decades and the role played by livestock systems in the global production of proteins. Animal, 15, 100287.

Hou, Y., Velthof, G. L., Lesschen, J. P., Staritsky, I. G., & Oenema, O. (2017). Nutrient recovery and emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane from animal manure in Europe: effects of manure treatment technologies. Environ. Sci. Technol., 51(1), 375-383.

IJHARS. (2018). Report on the state of organic farming in Poland 2019-2020.

Jarosz, Z., & Faber, A. (2015). Possibilities of reducing agricultural emissions from the cultivation of wheat intended for fuel purposes. Problemy Inżynierii Rolniczej, 2(88), 75-83.

Kacprzak, M. (2020). Removal of CO2 from the atmosphere - advantages, disadvantages and challenges. In J. Gajewski & W. Paprocki (Eds.), Climate policy and its implementation in the first half of the 21st century (pp. 218). Publikacja Europejskiego Kongresu Finansowego.

Kiryluk, A. (2009). Biodiversity and bioregionalism as factors of sustainable rural development in Podlasie. Białystok: Fundacja Forum Inicjatyw Gospodarczych.

Kiryluk, A. & Kostecka, J. (2020). Pro-Environmental and Health-Promoting Grounds for Restitution of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Cultivation. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 21(7), 99-107.

Komorowska, D. (2014). Patterns of agriculture development and the development of modern agriculture. Zeszyty Naukowe Szkoły Głównej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego w Warszawie: Problemy Rolnictwa Światowego, 14(3), 98-110.

Kostecka, J. (2019). Ecological Engineering – a View on Tasks and Challenges. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 20(10), 217-224.

Kostecka, J. & Kostecki, A. W. (2016a). Transformation of the countryside based on innovations in the field of environmental protection. Komitet Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania Kraju. STUDIA, CLXXIII, 197-212.

Kostecka, J., & Butt, K. R. (2019). Violence on the Natural Environment. Problemy ekorozwoju – problems of sustainable development, 14(2), 183-189.

Kostecka, J., & Kostecki, A. W. (2016b). Tourist clusters in the voivodeship Podkarpackie element of sustainable development. Komitet Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania Kraju. STUDIA, CLXXII, 149-173.

Kozłowska-Burdziak, M. (2020). The role of agri-environmental programs in shaping and protecting the agricultural landscape in Podlaskie Voivodeship. Białystok: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Białostockiego.

Kozłowski, K., Dach, J., Lewicki, A., Malińska, K., Paulino do Carmo, I. E., & Czekała, W. (2019). Potential of biogas production from animal manure in Poland. Archives of Environmental Protection, 45(3), 99-108.

Łozowicka, B., & Konecki, R. (2011). Selected aspects of chemical protection of agricultural crops in north-estern Poland. Acta Sci. Pol. Agricultura, 10(4), 107-119.

Lyng, K. A., Bjerkestrand, M., Stensgård, A. E., Callewaert, P., & Hanssen, O. J. (2018). Optimising Anaerobic Digestion of Manure Resources at a Regional Level. Sustainability, 10(1), 286.

Majewska, J., Pawluśkiewicz, B., & Piekut, K. (2017). The integrated assessment of natural resources status at the rural commune - case study of the Olszanka, Mazovian Voivodeship. Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW Land Reclamation, 49(2), 81-94.

Mieszkowska-Lisowska, E. (2014). Controlling and limiting the emission of ammonia from the agricultural sources. Actions undertaken internationally. Ekonomia i Środowisko, 3(50), 130-142.

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being. Island Press Washington DC.

Ministerstwo Rolnictwa I Rozwoju Wsi. (2011). Program Rozwoju Obszarów Wiejskich na lata 2007-2013. Warszawa.

Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi. (2019). Code of good agricultural practice for reducing ammonia emissions.

Nielsen, O. K. (2013). EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories.

Nordhaus, T., Shellenberger, M., & Blomqvist, L. (2012). The Planetary Boundaries Hypothesis: A Review of the Evidence. Breakthrough Institute Oakland CA.

PIG. (2022, May 2). Balance of mineral resources in Poland.

Popkiewicz, M. (2013). The world at a crossroads. Sonia Draga.

Radzikowski, P. (2018). The impact of the loss of agroecosystem biodiversity on the decline in the population of pollinating insects, with particular emphasis on the honey bee. Zagadnienia Doradztwa Rolniczego, 1(91), 78-86.

Rahman, S. A. (2004). The place of organic manure in sustaining agricultural development in Nigeria. Science Technology and Society National Workshop in Lafia.

Raport. (2019). Report on the state of the Hajnówka county 2020.

Raworth, K. (2020). The Amsterdam City Doughnut. A tool for transformative action.

Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Person, A., Chapin, S. F., Lamin, E. F., Lenton, T. M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., de Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., van der Leeuw, S., Rodhe, H., Sörlin, S., Synder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karlberg, L., Corelli, R. W., Fabry, V. J., Hansen, J., Walker, B., Liverman, D., Richardson, K., Crutzen, P., & Foley, J. A. (2009). A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461, 472-475.

Roszkowska-Mądra, B. (2014). Changes in agriculture in Podlaskie Voivodeship after integration with the European Union. Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW: Ekonomika i Organizacja Gospodarki Żywnościowej, 107, 103-114.

Rykaczewska, K. (2010). The role of agronomy in development of multi-functional agriculture - in the light of X Congress of the European Society for Agronomy. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roślin, 25, 3-11.

Samborski, S. (2018). Precision agriculture. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Sawicka, J., & Tomaszewska, A. (2012). Environmental Protection Program for the Hajnówka County for 2012-2015 (update). &esrc= s&source=web&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwjR_tmF5_f3AhVj-SoKHby5DeAQFnoECAMQAQ &

Scherr, S. J., & McNeely, J. A. (2008). Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagriculture’ landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363(1491), 477–494.

Siebeneicher, G. E. (1997). Podręcznik rolnictwa ekologicznego. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Smol, M., Marcinek, P., Duda, J., & Szołdrowska, D. (2020). Importance of Sustainable Mineral Resource Management in Implementing the Circular Economy (CE) Model and the European Green Deal Strategy. Resources, 9(5), 55.

Stalenga, J., Brzezińska, K., & Jobda, M. (2016). Recommendations for changes in the agri-environmental program. Wydawnictwo: IUNG-PIB Puławy.

Strategia. (2014). Strategy for the sustainable development of Hajnówka county for the years 2015–2020.

Syp, A. (2017). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture in 1990-2014. Emisje gazów cieplarnianych z rolnictwa w latach 1990-2014. Zeszyty Naukowe SGGW w Warszawie: Problemy Rolnictwa Światowego, 17(2), 244-255.

UNCCD. (2022). Global Land Outlook 2. Report. 2022. United Nations.

UNEP. (2020, June). The UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030.

United Nations. (2022, April 18). Take Action for the Sustainable Development Goals.

Wilson, E. O. (2016). Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Live. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation.

Witkowska-Dąbrowska, M. (2018). Changes in the Volume of Air Emissions from Gases and Selected Pollutants Originating from Agricultural Production in Poland and the EU – Analyses Using Sustainable Development Indicators. Problems of World Agriculture, 18(2), 303-314.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment


Download data is not yet available.