Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Ekonomia i Srodowisko - Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" ("Ekonomia i Środowisko") is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="http://psesizn.pl/">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko en-US Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment 0867-8898 <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license sa"> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the <a id="same_license_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">same license</a> as the original.<span id="sa-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-offset-1 col-md-10"><hr /></div> </div> <div id="deed-understanding" class="row"> <h3>Notices:</h3> <ul class="understanding license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license">You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable <a id="exception_or_limitation_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">exception or limitation</a>.</li> <li class="license">No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/#" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> A system for accounting the costs of contemporary negative environmental phenomena - some methodological remarks https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/429 <p>The article contains an idea of building a cost accounting system for contemporary negative phenomena of natural and anthropogenic disasters, including ecological ones. These phenomena are treated as "black swans", that is, phenomena with a high level of threat and wide, diverse, mainly negative effects. The authors presented selected methodological suggestions for including different types of effects of such phenomena in the system of records and their monetary valorization (i.e. cost recognition). The article is intended as an introduction to further in-depth discussion of these challenges. Considering the emerging problems (phenomena and processes), they belong to the most important issues for economics, ecological economics and environmental economics. However, they are not very often addressed in the literature.</p> Stanisław Czaja Agnieszka Becla Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 6 20 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.429 Rough assessment of the consideration of spatial planning tools in the municipal plans for adaptation to climate change. An example of selected Polish cities https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/427 <p> The subject of the study whose results are presented in this paper is an attempt at assessing the consideration of spatial planning tools in the municipal plans for adaptation to climate change, performed on the sample of fifteen Polish cities with populations of over 100,000. The assessment was performed using a three-step descriptive analysis. The first stage consisted of identifying the thematic areas of such adaptation for which spatial planning tools had been used. The second stage, done against the background of a general review of spatial planning tools, involved identifying the tools that could be assigned to the already identified thematic areas of urban adaptation to climate change. The number of tools used was totalled at the third and final stage, and synthetic analysis of the tools used was performed using a set of selected criteria.<br />The study is the first, basic attempt to empirically verify the hypothesis that spatial planning and spatial policy play a critical role in adapting cities to climate change, as stated in the subject literature.</p> Grażyna Borys Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 22 38 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.427 Evaluation of the use of cogeneration bonus as a support mechanism for the transformation of the heating system in Poland in 2019-2020 https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/439 <p>The development of cogeneration is an element of the transformation of the Polish heating sector. Consequently, the state applies various subsidy mechanisms. One of them is the cogeneration bonus, which is designed to stimulate investment in high-efficiency cogeneration. It consists in subsidizing the generated electricity to entities that won the cogeneration bonus auction and then made investments in new cogeneration engines. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of the cogeneration bonus. The thesis assumes that the cogeneration bonus, despite its supportive nature, is not used by investors. This is evidenced by the low level of contracting of subsidies available in individual auctions. To achieve the objective of the study, the ratio of the volume of contracted subsidies in the cogeneration bonus auctions to the volume available for contracting in individual auctions was analyzed. The author has analyzed: the results of the auction for cogeneration bonus, sector reports, CO<sub>2</sub> emission price, types of fuel as well as aggregated financial data of Polish heat plants. The research has an implication character, confirming lack of adequacy of cogeneration bonus to financial situation of potential investors.</p> Piotr Adamik Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 39 52 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.439 Financial economy of communes with a large forest area - example of rural communes of the Podlaskie Voivodeship https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/438 <p>The financial situation of rural municipalities in the Podlaskie voivodeship, which a large forest areas was discussed. The problem that was undertaken was addressed on the basis of mass statistical data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS), and analysis covers the years 2016-2019. Assessment of the financial economy was carried out based on budget, per capita and debt liability indicators. Correlation analysis was conducted to determine relationships between indicators. Both incomes and expenses per capita are lower than the average for Polish rural communes. Large differences in the values of other indicators are present between groups, which arises from, among other things, the policy conducted by local authorities. Income from forestry tax supplement other income from taxation of natural persons’ property. The share of income from forestry tax is similar to the share of income from agricultural tax, and even higher in certain municipalities.</p> Zofia Koloszko-Chomentowska Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 53 64 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.438 The academic interest for bioplastics - a bibliometric analysis https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/436 <p> Plastic materials are shaping modern society and making our lives easier. However, due to improper handling of plastic waste, plastics are no longer ubiquitous only in our homes, villages and cities but also in the natural environment. In line with the concept of bioeconomy, bioplastics are presented as a sustainable option that could help the economy overcome its dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to the reduction of overall plastic pollution. The study aims to identify the areas of academic interest in bioplastics. The study's methodological approach is based on a bibliometric (scientometric) analysis. It was found that in academia, biology, chemistry, and biotechnology are the main areas dealing with bioplastics, focusing on the whole process of product development. At the same time, there is a significant lack of research in areas such as social sciences, including economics. These findings should contribute to the global scientific discourse.</p> Nikola Sagapova Eva Cudlinova Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 65 82 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.436 The impact of crises situations on the development of Business Continuity Management during the Covid-19 Pandemic in Jordanian hospitals https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/422 <p>In this paper, the researchers have investigated the effect of various crises on the development of the Business Continuity Management (BCM) process in Jordanian hospitals. They used the quantitative research design technique to fulfil all the study’s objectives. After that, they also tested whether their hypothesised model could be used for developing the BCM. After distributing questionnaires amongst the supervisors working in 7 private hospitals in Amman, Jordan, they collected all the data. Then, they carried analysed and sorted all the data using the SPSS software. The study results showed that the hospitals in Jordan were eager to maintain security and stability in the case of a crisis. Additional statistical tests presented evidence regarding the positive effect of different factors (such as external/ internal crises, natural disasters, operational and strategic risks, and the probability of recurrence of a crisis) on the BCM development in Jordanian hospitals. Here, the researchers have attempted to offer insights and knowledge to help practitioners, academicians and policymakers.</p> Abdullah Alkhrabsheh Maisoon Abo Murad Sakher A. I. AL-Bazaiah Mahmoud H. Alrabab'a Marwan Muhammad AL-Nsour Abdelruhman Abbas AL-Khrabsheh Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 84 108 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.422 Photovoltaic microgeneration (RES) in selected major cities in Silesian Voivodeship https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/430 <p>The impact of climate change on the economy and environment humans live in has increased, leading to a relatively quick intensification of the effort to reduce the environmental footprint of the civilisation. The push to establish a sustainable energy economy has become one of the primary challenges today. A sustainable energy economy should ensure energy security, reduce energy poverty, and contribute to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Poland is facing considerable challenges relevant to the objectives of EU policy, particularly the Fit for 55 package, which cannot be achieved without renewable energy sources. The most popular renewable energy source in Poland is solar energy. Apart from its obvious advantages, the use of distributed photovoltaic generation (including microgeneration) entails the need for transmission grid upgrades. The paper’s objective was to assess the RES potential of Poland through an analysis of the steps the state took and the progress of its targets. The empirical part focuses on the assessment of the use of the solar energy potential (in photovoltaic microgeneration) in cities with district rights in Silesian Voivodeship, Poland, from 2014 to 2020. The study employs selected cartographic representation, comparative analysis, in-depth case study, and spatial analysis methods. The calculations involved data from Tauron Dystrybucja SA on the number of microgeneration systems in the cities, Database of Topographic Objects, Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office of Poland and Eurostat.</p> Arkadiusz Halama Agnieszka Majorek Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 109 124 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.430 Ecological, technical and economic aspects of using flint wastes as aggregate for special concretes https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/441 <p>This paper examines the ecological, technical, and economic aspects of using flint wastes extracted during the chalk extraction. The study presents the adverse effects of mining on the environment and draws attention to the mining waste generated. Flint wastes are proposed to be used in the crushed form as a substitute for high-quality aggregate for cement composites. Traditional concretes, which contained gravel and basalt aggregates in their volume, were used as control composites. Due to the satisfactory results of the technical tests, the described waste disposal method was also analysed in terms of possible economic benefits. Conclusions from the conducted tests proved that crushed flint waste is technically equal to high-quality special aggregates. At the same time, the costs of its acquisition and production in suitable deposition systems can be lower than the cheapest traditional gravel aggregates available on the market.</p> Bartosz Zegardlo Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 125 148 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.441 Perspectives of mobility development in remote areas attractive to tourists https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/440 <p>This paper addresses the problem of transport systems in remote areas, defined by a set of constraints deriving from a sparse population, infrequent transportation location means stops and cost-effectiveness of the system. Remote areas attractive to tourists additionally require transportation services designed with respect to changeable demand and the necessity to provide transportation solutions limiting detrimental influence on the environment. This paper aims to identify and assess the perspectives for developing innovative mobility solutions for residents and tourists in remote areas in line with sustainable development and evaluate factors supporting or hindering the development of the selected perspectives. The results of a Delphi study with 23 experts from seven EU Member States, Russia and Norway, enabled the identification of factors shaping the future of mobility in peripheral areas, including IT-supported multimodal transport systems, demand-responsive transport and transport services tailored to the specific needs of different user groups.</p> Katarzyna Kuźmicz Urszula Ryciuk Ewa Glińska Halina Kiryluk Ewa Rollnik-Sadowska Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 150 188 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.440 Sustainable tourism as a factor in the development of protected areas in the Pomerania Euroregion https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/442 <p>This study aimed to assess the opinion of the inhabitants of protected areas in the Polish-German borderland on the development of tourism using the concept of sustainable tourism. It was examined whether the type of protected area and the country of residence were determinants of sustainable tourism development. In 2019-2020, a questionnaire survey was conducted among residents near 14 protected areas in the Pomerania Euroregion. Multinomial and ordinal logit models were used in the data analysis. The main limitations of the survey were the inability to refer to similar surveys from previous years and for other protected areas in Poland and Germany. This prevented a complete spatial-temporal analysis. The study carried out on the acceptance by inhabitants of the neighbourhood of protected areas in the Pomerania Euroregion is unique. The Polish protected regions of the Pomerania Euroregion were shown to have more significant potential for sustainable tourism development than the German ones. The results also show some differences in the perception of tourism by the Poles and the Germans.</p> Arkadiusz Malkowski Beata Bieszk-Stolorz Dawid Dawidowicz Wojciech Zbaraszewski Martin Balas Copyright (c) 2022 Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 80 1 189 216 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.442 Realisation of technical infrastructure with the financial participation of commune residents – a review of solutions and evaluation of their applicability https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/387 <p>Financial participation of the commune inhabitants in the implementation of their tasks in building technical infrastructure is not a clearly regulated issue. In local government practice, at least five basic solutions have been developed according to this type of participation. They have been presented based on targeted, critical literature reviews and legal texts and jurisprudence analysis.</p> <p>The article’s main aim is to indicate a set of tools by which the financial participation of residents in the construction of infrastructure can be implemented and to present their comparison and valorisation. Finally, it should be stated that the most complete level of social involvement is achievable due to applying participation under the provisions of the Inland Transport Infrastructure Financing Act and local initiative. These are tools that give citizens the broadest impact on implementing individual investments.</p> <p>According to the participation ladder, they can be considered tools for the co-production of public services and the highest level of social participation.</p> Anna Bernaciak Dariusz Springer Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-21 2022-04-21 80 1 217 238 10.34659/eis.2022.80.1.387 Summaries in Polish https://ekonomiaisrodowisko.pl/journal/article/view/466 <p>Summaries in Polish</p> Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 80 1