Economics and Environment <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" is an international quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources published in Poland. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the electronic version.</p> <p><strong>e-ISSN </strong>2300-6420, <strong>ISSN </strong>0867-8898</p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p><strong>Impact Factor = 0.4</strong></p> <p><strong>CiteScore (2022) = 0.8</strong></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry; agriculture and horticulture</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance; social and economic geography and spatial management; management and quality studies; law</p> <p><strong>4. The field of science and natural sciences:</strong> biotechnology</p> <p><span style="color: #000000;"><em>Economics and Environment</em> is an<strong> Open Access</strong> journal that allows free unlimited access to its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. It provides access to its content under the <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. Authors who publish with our journal agree to make the submitted article available under the terms of the above-mentioned <a href="">Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license</a>. </span> </p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Ekonomia i Środowisko en-US Economics and Environment 0867-8898 <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <h3>Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> <li class="license sa"> <p><strong>ShareAlike</strong> — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the <a id="same_license_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">same license</a> as the original.<span id="sa-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-offset-1 col-md-10"><hr /></div> </div> <div id="deed-understanding" class="row"> <h3>Notices:</h3> <ul class="understanding license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license">You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable <a id="exception_or_limitation_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">exception or limitation</a>.</li> <li class="license">No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as <a id="publicity_privacy_or_moral_rights_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">publicity, privacy, or moral rights</a> may limit how you use the material.</li> </ul> </div> Resource efficiency indicators in measuring eco-innovation in EU countries <p>The aim of the article is to analyse the diversity of the level of eco-innovation in the EU Member States in the field of resource efficiency. For this purpose, the resource efficiency outcomes indicator and its sub-indicators were used. The study was prepared on the basis of data from the General Directorate for the Environment. Using positional statistical measures, an analysis of the diversification of the eco-innovation level of the European Union Member States in 2012-2021 was carried out, and the trends of changes in this differentiation were identified. The analysis showed that the difference between the level of eco-innovation in the indicators studied in the EU Member States does not decrease, and there is still a very large difference between the most and the least innovative countries. To date, we have not found this kind of research, so the research carried out fills the research gap in this area.</p> Jolanta Pakulska Małgorzata Rutkowska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 87 4 446 14 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.446 The dynamics of energy transition in European countries in years 2004-2021 <p>This study delves into the critical contemporary issue of global energy transition, focusing on European countries from 2004 to 2021. Its objective is to identify countries with similar rates of energy transition, utilising statistical measures and clustering techniques on Eurostat data. The paper explores energy efficiency, renewable sources, and energy import reliance. Findings show reduced primary energy consumption in EU-27, varied energy efficiency trends, and notable differences in renewables and import dependence. Clustering countries unveil diverse transition speeds. Policymakers can tailor effective strategies based on regional challenges and successes, fostering a nuanced understanding of economic, social, and environmental dynamics in the energy transition. This analysis offers valuable insights for informed policy-making in the complex landscape of global energy transformation.</p> Marlena Piekut Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 87 4 634 27 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.634 Polish climate policy in the opinion of young Poles - a pilot survey <p>As established in the Europe 2020 Strategy and the European Green Deal, combating climate change is one of the central elements of the European Union’s policy. As a member, Poland is obliged to develop and implement climate policy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions so climate neutrality can be achieved by 2050. In the context of low political priority for the Polish government, the study aims to identify the level of awareness, perceptions, and attitudes of young Poles towards climate change, as well as their assessment of climate policy. To achieve this aim, a non-random sampling pilot survey was conducted among young Poles in spring 2022, using an electronic questionnaire made available via social media. While the results show respondents’ awareness of and rather high interest in the threats posed by climate change, in-depth knowledge of climate change, climate policy, and its socio-economic implications is lacking. The progress in and effectiveness of climate policy in Poland is rather assessed negatively. Based on the results, key directions for future actions are suggested for the young generation to become a force in creating a more effective climate policy.</p> Monika Paradowska Joost (johannes) Platje Aleksandra Suchecka Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 87 4 669 22 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.669 Selection of a reliable energy source suppling domestic hot water (DHW) system in the kindergarten – a case study <p>Renewable energy sources (RESs) are used more and more frequently as energy sources for heating and domestic hot water (DHW). However, there are many factors influencing the energy efficiency, thus also ecological benefits. Before making a decision what kind of RES is useful and reliable, a comprehensive analysis should be conducted taking into account technical, financial and ecological factors. This paper discusses different variants of energy sources that could be applied in a kindergarten building for preparing hot water, in place of existing solution (district heating system, DHS). An air heat pump (AHP) with photovoltaic panels (PV) were considered the most reliable energy sources in the analysed building, in terms of economic and environmental considerations. The simple payback time (SPBT) for this investment was estimated as 14.55 years. This solution causes the lowest CO2 emissions. Another system with solar collectors supplying hot water preparation in the heat center can be also recommended. The simple payback time in this case was slightly higher (14.94 years) and what is more, a decrease in CO2 emissions was observed compared to the actual conditions.</p> Dorota Anna Krawczyk Beata Sadowska Maciej Kłopotowski Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 87 4 711 16 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.711 Assessment of the spatial disparities of the green economy in the voivodeships of Poland in 2010-2020 <p>The development of a green economy in a situation of resource scarcity, global climate change, and environmental degradation means entering a new path of socio-economic development that will more effectively implement the goals of sustainable development. The level of its regional polarisation is stimulated by demographic, natural and technological, economic and social factors. The aim of the research was to identify and assess the level of regional polarisation in terms of the development of the green economy in voivodeships in Poland using a synthetic measure. The basis for the analysis was a set of substantively and statistically analysed diagnostic variables from 2010-2020 available in Statistics Poland. The result of the analysis was the presentation of regional polarisation and the ordering of voivodeships in Poland in 2010-2020 in terms of the synthetic measure - green economy. The green economy of voivodeships should be built based on available endogenous resources and planning and organisational solutions specific to the voivodeship. Using a synthetic measure to assess activities in the area of the green economy makes it possible to evaluate the effects and take corrective measures of the voivodeships' in this area.</p> Paweł Dziekański Łukasz Popławski Adam Wyszkowski Magdalena Wrońska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 87 4 699 17 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.699 Atrial development as an economical type of complex high-density single-family housing in Poland <p>Atrial housing, as a type of high-density single-family, appeared in Poland in the 1960s and 1970s. First, in 1962, legal regulations were developed. This was followed by several atrium developments and research work. After 1990, it appeared in only a few publications, and in 2003, it disappeared from the legislation. The aim of the research presented in this article is to demonstrate whether it is possible to build an atrial house or a whole complex of atrial buildings today, based on existing legislation and planning conditions. To this end, the literature on the subject was studied, and 11 existing realisations from the 1970s were analysed. Based on the findings, an atrial house plan was developed, which in turn was used to develop an atrial housing complex located in one of the quarters of the Bialystok Local Spatial Development Plan. The results confirmed that nowadays, subject to certain specific conditions in the provisions of the plans and on the basis of the legal regulations in force, atrial buildings may be used, despite the fact that they are not referred to in the legislation on housing development.</p> Wojciech Matys Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 87 4 716 21 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.716 The new ecological paradigm and attitudes towards sustainable business practices – a Mexican case study <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study investigates the impact of teaching programmes on perceptions of sustainable development among students. The researchers argue that existing educational programmes must provide a comprehensive approach to mitigating collapse risk. To address this issue, the study developed a teaching programme to be delivered by experienced educators and experts, consisting of lectures, seminars, exercises, research projects, and related activities. The programme aimed to raise awareness of sustainable development and deepen understanding of the complexity of the subject. The results showed that the teaching programme increased students' appreciation of the importance of complexity and the non-linear impacts of Black Swans in the sustainability discourse without changing their adherence to the New Ecological Paradigm. The study highlights the need for education to enable students to deal with problems characterised by complexity, uncertainty, and low probability, as well as high-impact events that pose a non-linear threat to sustainable development.</p> David Slim Zepeda Quintana Johannes Platje Arnold Bernaciak Mariusz Czekała Markus Will Ynte K. van Dam Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-04 2024-02-04 87 4 649 21 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.649 Is it possible to implement the idea of zero waste in waste management in Poznań? <p>The aim of the study was to find out the awareness and readiness of Poznań residents to implement the Zero Waste (ZW) idea in the city. Residents' knowledge of the hazards of municipal waste generation and their familiarity with and degree of adherence to ZW principles were investigated. The research was carried out through a questionnaire survey. The article is a form of answering whether the inhabitants of a large city in Poland are ready to implement the ZW idea. The research presents the level of preparation (readiness) of the inhabitants of Poznań and the conditions enabling the implementation of ZW in the city. The results were statistically analysed. Conclusions indicate a significant readiness of the respondents to implement the ZW idea. A preliminary concept of reducing municipal waste by promoting ZW in the city was indicated. This is important because Poznań is currently rebuilding its municipal waste management.</p> Piotr Lewandowski Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 87 4 663 31 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.663 Social and demographic factors in shaping the perception of work as a source of health and safety risks: a study on adult Europeans <p>The aim of this article is to assess the impact of selected social and demographic factors on the perception of European adults regarding their workplace as a health and safety risk. This aligns with the sustainable development concept, which emphasizes labor rights protection and a safe working environment. Sustainable work is defined as work that doesn't compromise employees' physical or mental health over time. Utilizing data from the 2021 European Working Conditions Survey, which covered over 70,000 individuals across 36 countries and was conducted via CATI due to the pandemic, the study employs logistic regression. It analyzes three models: one encompassing all European countries, and two focusing on Eastern and Central European countries. The findings demonstrate that factors such as company size, age, occupational group, sector, employment nature, gender, service length, and education significantly influence workplace risk perception. International comparisons highlight differences in these factors across country groups, contributing to the scientific discussion in social sciences.</p> Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz Katarzyna Boczkowska Konrad Niziołek Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 87 4 712 36 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.712 Inclusive management in a diversified cultural environment <p>The aim of this article is to diagnose the level of inclusion in the management of representatives of other cultures. This article introduces the idea of inclusive management, develops a model of inclusive management of an organisation in a cultural aspect, and applies the Inclusive Management Scale – an original research tool which can be used to diagnose the level of inclusion in management in the following dimensions: cognitive, affective and behavioural, and enables precise indication of strengths and weaknesses in a given area. The results of research conducted in 452 organisations based in Poland are presented. The research shows that Polish managers, with regard to the behavioural and affective dimensions, are at the first level of ethnorelativism. It should be noted that they tend to accept representatives of other cultures and undertake cooperation in spite of differences but do not have sufficient knowledge and determination on how to manage in a fully inclusive manner. Their knowledge of how to adapt and integrate foreigners should be improved. On a cognitive level, they are in a transitional phase between ethnocentric and ethnorelativist approaches to managing culturally different people. It has also been observed that managers of large organisations are more willing and better prepared to manage inclusively than managers of smaller entities.</p> <p> </p> Joanna Szydło Miroslawa Czerniawska Agnieszka Rzepka Bernabe Alonso Fariñas Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 87 4 688 29 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.688 Prosumer behavior and the assessment of the level of sustainable development of households in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland <p>The aim of the article is to assess the sustainability of households and present the issue of sustainable development in the context of consumer behaviour in Poland on the basis of our own surveys. The research was carried out in July 2022 on a sample of 1112 respondents with a diagnostic survey using the CAWI survey technique. During the research, various types of prosumer activities of households were defined, but also their consumer behaviour was assessed in terms of its positive impact on sustainable development. On the basis of selected variables describing the consumer behaviour of households, three indices of the measurement of sustainable development of households were built – a general index and two component indices. Then, the results were analysed for correlations between variables describing household characteristics and indices describing their level of presumption. Statistical, descriptive and comparative methods were used. The study shows that the surveyed households are highly sustainable. The level of sustainable development of the surveyed households is positively correlated with the level of prosumption.</p> Paulina Trębska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 87 4 616 22 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.616 Towards sustainable purchase: the effect of social responsibility, innovativeness and knowledge of natural cosmetics purchasing consumers’ intentions <p>The article aims to broaden the understanding of factors affecting natural cosmetics purchasing behaviours and specifically, to specify the role social responsibility, consumers' innovativeness and knowledge play in shaping purchasing intentions for these products. The study uses the extended theory of planned behaviour as its theoretical framework and is based on theoretical support and suggested modification indices. The study applies a quantitative methodology which collects survey data from Ukraine and Poland. It was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. Results reveal that attitude towards purchasing natural cosmetics, social norms, consumers' innovativeness and consumer’s natural cosmetics knowledge all have statistically significant and positive impacts on the purchase intention towards natural cosmetic products. This study contributes to the literature by incorporating other variables into the TPB model. It provides new insights and constitutes a useful step forward in the understanding of consumers’ behaviours towards natural cosmetics.</p> Lucyna Witek Grażyna Kędzia Iwona Staniec Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 87 4 629 28 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.629 Circular economy rebound effect in the context of second-hand clothing consumption <p>The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether consumer behaviour in the second-hand clothing market causes a rebound effect, and if so, what are the reasons behind it. The study examined two potential causes: the price effect and moral licensing. A survey technique was used for data collection to study the phenomenon quantitatively. Non-parametric tests, analysis of relationships between variables and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to analyse the results. The existence of a rebound effect in the used clothing market was confirmed. At the same time, the magnitude of the substitution rate between new clothing and used clothing was estimated at 1:1.23. It was also proved that the phenomenon under study is influenced by both the price effect and moral licensing.</p> Agnieszka Ciechelska Anna Matel Tomasz Poskrobko Edyta Sidorczuk-Pietraszko Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 87 4 635 20 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.635 Motivations for hotels to undertake pro-ecological activities – opinions of hotel guests <p>The cognitive objective of this paper is to assess the motives driving hotel owners and managers to implement environmentally friendly actions from the perspective of hotel guests. The empirical aim of the study materialises through investigations conducted on a sample of 1317 hotel guests in four provincial cities in Poland: Warsaw, Cracow, Wroclaw, and Opole. The study encompassed guests of six hotels classified as three-star establishments. The research methodology employed herein is a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire designed by the authors of this study. The survey was conducted between June and September 2021. In the concluding section of the paper, the analysis of the research allows for the formulation of conclusions. Among these conclusions, a notable observation is the assertion that guests have a remarkably low awareness regarding the impact of hotels on the natural environment. This finding contradicts the more optimistic assessments of such awareness that are found in various works within the field of hospitality. According to the authors, this conclusion could form the basis for educational initiatives and the initiation of mechanisms, including economic ones, aimed at elevating the knowledge level in this domain, not solely among hotel guests but also, perhaps predominantly, among hotel proprietors and managers. Nevertheless, the authors of this paper are cognizant of the exploratory nature of the conducted study, which may serve as a convenient foundation for subsequent, more in-depth investigations, particularly focusing on expanding the array of applied methodologies, significantly increasing the research sample size, and considering a broader range of respondent characteristics in the research.</p> Tadeusz Borys Marek Bugdol Daniel Puciato Adam R. Szromek Marcin Geryk Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 87 4 673 21 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.673 Is seniors' tourism behavior related to sustainable tourism? <p>The article addresses two global challenges in the realm of tourism participation: sustainable development and an ageing society. Our research aimed to determine whether European seniors engage in tourism and whether the factors influencing tourist destinations are related to sustainable tourism. To achieve this, we utilized correspondence analysis with representative Eurobarometer data. Our findings confirm that seniors actively participate in tourism. The majority of seniors in the European Union frequently express their heightened concern for health and safety measures when travelling in the post-COVID-19 era.<br />Moreover, the analysis identified the countries where seniors actively pursue sustainable development goals during their tourism activities. Future research should focus on understanding the decision-making processes of seniors when choosing tourist destinations and accessing tourism offers. These results provide a foundation for designing tourism offerings that cater to the current and future needs of seniors.</p> <p> </p> Klaudia Przybysz Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz Agnieszka Stanimir Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 87 4 714 23 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.714 Effects of local policies and public goods on tourism in rural areas: Exploring spatial dependence patterns <p>The main objective of this paper is to compare the effects of the occurrence of public goods versus local government expenditures on the development of touristic facilities in rural areas. The specific objective focuses on identifying patterns of spatial dependence and analysing the distance bands in which spatial effects occur, especially accounting for backwash effects. The analysis provides insight into the spillovers that are usually omitted while building spatial development plans. The robust-VCE Poisson Spatial Durbin Model based on data from the entire population of counties in Poland was used. We found that local policies, spending, and spatial planning can compensate for a lower endowment of public goods. The negative spatial effect of the occurrence of public goods generally exceeded the positive effect of clustering.</p> <p class="Normal-0" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Cambria',serif;"> </span></p> Bazyli Czyżewski Sergii Iaromenko Łukasz Kryszak Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 87 4 624 31 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.624 Theoretical aspects of studies on agricultural economics and agrarian issues <p>This article contains a theoretical proposal for classifying the agrarian economic theory as a separate school of heterodox economic thought, encompassing more than a dozen research streams. In this sense, it fills a gap in the general economic theory, in which, so far, the agrarian economic thought is not considered a separate school of economics. The study proves that for the development of agrarian economics, it is not necessary to adopt the monistic, reductive, and consolidative approach that characterises mainstream economics. We treat agricultural economics as a pluralistic science, taking into account different viewpoints and research paradigms of development, from industrial to sustainable. Raising the need to integrate agrarian thought, the study points to the designations of the substantive distinctiveness of agricultural economics, including the immobility of the land factor, the price and income specificity of food demand, and the compulsion to consume food. The considerations are supplemented by a conceptualisation of the studied issue concerning the situation in Poland, presented in the form of a case study.</p> Andrzej Czyżewski Anna Matuszczak Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 87 4 617 24 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.617 Labour market in sustainability transitions: a systematic literature review <p>The study objective is to analyse scientific literature relating to the labour market in sustainability transitions and identify emerging research directions and implemented research methods. A bibliometric analysis method was used to review the literature from the SCOPUS database. Moreover, an in-depth review of selected publications that fall into the field of social sciences was made. In literature, it is recognised that there is a scarcity of research linking the labour market and sustainability. However, in the analysed period of 1997-2023, a gradual growth was noticed in the number of publications. Four thematic clusters were identified in relation to green growth, twin transition, green employment and sustainable European labour market policy issues. The majority of authors based their study results on a critical analysis of literature, case study and database analysis. Even though qualitative research is popular among researchers studying the labour market in sustainability transitions, foresight methodology has not been used so far. The topics researched to an insufficient extent include, among others, career ecosystem, precarious employment, digital transformation, just transition, artificial intelligence or the future of work.</p> Ewa Rollnik-Sadowska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 87 4 681 31 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.681 Age as a differentiating factor in consumer behaviour in the context of the implementation of circular waste management <p>The aim of the article is to determine differences in getting rid of unnecessary but operational items from households by young and older people. This is a significant problem from the point of view of the implementation of the principles of the circular economy because successful implementation of the circular economy system in municipalities depends on the habits and behaviour of consumers. The article is of a research nature. The survey was conducted in January 2020 using the CAWI method on a representative sample of n=1012 adult Polish residents aged 18 to 60. In the case of most of the product categories studied, there are differences in the way young and older people deal with unnecessary items. Younger people are more willing to buy new things, but on a positive note, they also often declare willingness to resell products they no longer need. However, an unfavourable phenomenon is the inclination of young people to store unnecessary items in their households. Older people - in the case of most of the products tested - are willing to give them free of charge to people in need. By knowing which groups of subjects deal with unnecessary objects less responsibly, one will be able to take targeted actions to change their behaviour.</p> Izabela Ostrowska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 87 4 633 20 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.633 Equivalence of low-cost PM10 concentration measuring devices with a reference method using various correction functions <p>The aim of the study was to build a corrective model that can be used in the analysed devices and to assess the impact of such a model on the values of the measured concentrations. The novelty of this study is the test of equivalence with the equivalent reference method for hourly data. The study used hourly data of PM<sub>10</sub> concentrations measured in a chosen city in Poland. Data was collected from two PM<sub>10</sub> sensors and a reference device placed in close proximity. In addition, air temperature, humidity and wind speed were also measured. Among the tested models, a linear model was selected that used primary measurements of PM10, temperature, air velocity, and humidity as the most accurate approximation of the actual PM<sub>10</sub> concentration level. The results of the analysis showed that it is possible to build mathematical models that effectively convert PM<sub>10</sub> concentration data from tested low-cost electronic measuring devices to concentrations obtained by the reference method.</p> Tomasz Owczarek Mariusz Rogulski Piotr O. Czechowski Artur Badyda Ernest Czermański Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 87 4 627 22 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.627 A sustainable model of municipal economy <p>Sustainable development is a dynamic process based mainly on quantitative and qualitative changes in the economic, social and ecological spheres in accordance with the needs and preferences of the commune's inhabitants. Municipal management, however, creates favourable conditions for local development and constant improvement of the quality of life of residents. The aim of the study is to analyse municipal management from the perspective of sustainable development. The basic research method used in the study is indicator analysis. The indicators selected for development describe the concept of sustainable development in fundamental areas of the municipal economy, such as energy, water and sewage, waste, municipal housing, public transport and road infrastructure. The research was conducted in Poland in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in 2020-2022. The subjects of the study are the 12 municipalities of the Olsztyn district. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the best results in terms of creating a sustainable municipal economy are obtained by municipalities which have carried out the largest number of projects in this area, as well as those which have the largest share of forests and waters in the municipal area, e.g. Stawiguda, Dywity, Dobre Miasto, Gietrzwałd. The implementation of sustainable development in municipal management is determined by many economic, social, environmental, spatial and technological conditions. The research will enable local authorities and decision-makers to practically implement the concept of sustainable development in the municipal economy and may also be used in the process of planning investments and local activities, taking into account the economic, ecological and social aspects. The research constitutes the basis for further research work related to the practical implementation and management of sustainable development in municipal management.</p> Waldemar Kozłowski Konrad Turkowski Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-04 2024-02-04 87 4 587 29 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.587 The role of country's green brand and digitalization in enhancing environmental, social, and governance performance <p>In the contemporary global landscape, characterised by increasing concerns about climate change, sustainable development, and corporate responsibility, it is necessary to study and address pressing issues at the intersection of environmental consciousness, technological advancement, and governance practices. This paper aims to examine the relationship between the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) pillars of a country’s development, green brand and digitalisation. To achieve the study’s goal, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was applied. The object of investigation was EU countries for 2016-2020. The findings allow us to conclude that a country's green brand is conducive to ESG performance by attracting green investment in renewable energies, social projects, and innovations. The results confirm that governments should prioritise sustainability initiatives, such as investing in renewable energy, adopting sustainable practices, and implementing environmental and social policies. Such efforts can enhance a country's green brand and lead to positive ESG outcomes, attracting more responsible businesses and investors. Moreover, digitalisation promoted governance by 0.142. The results showed that digitalisation could be a powerful tool for improving a country's green brand and ESG performance. Digital technologies can help countries monitor and manage environmental resources, promote sustainable practices, and engage with stakeholders.</p> Aleksy Kwilinski Oleksii Lyulyov Tetyana Pimonenko Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-25 2024-01-25 87 4 613 22 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.613 Green bonds as the driving force of environmental performance – the European perspective <p>This paper identifies regions with high environmental performance by assessing the size of green bond issuance in European countries from a cause-and-effect perspective. Cluster analysis and descriptive statistics were used to meet this research objective. The research subject was the size of green bond issuance, understood as the driving force for the green economy in European countries. The main findings of the research show a strong correlation between the size of green bond issuance and environmental performance. Due to limited access to source data, the analysis of green sources of financing was restricted only to the size of green bond issuance, excluding other funding sources. Identifying the regions with high environmental performance and high value of green bond issuance will allow for an effective support plan for pro-ecological actions by using soft and complex tools of green policy, bearing in mind existing limitations, too. This approach determines groups of countries that share similar features, i.e., the ones that take advantage of green projects financed by the issuance of green bonds and simultaneously have a high environmental performance index.</p> Bogna Janik Katarzyna Maruszewska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 87 4 608 19 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.608 Environmental responsibility of corporate management in the Visegrad region – comparative study of the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia <p>The article presents a comprehensive investigation into the prioritisation of environment-oriented Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities among companies within the Visegrad region, encompassing the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia. An online questionnaire featuring Likert scale questions was used to collect data from November 2022 to June 2023 on the emphasis placed on 11 distinct environment-oriented CSR activities. Analytical methods covered descriptive and inferential analyses. The study contributes original insights by focusing on the Visegrad region's corporate engagement in environmental CSR activities. The findings reveal significant disparities between countries, particularly in the domains of eco-friendly transportation solutions and investments in green technologies for environmental progress. Statistically significant differences were observed between the Czech Republic and Poland, as well as between Poland and Slovakia, there by shedding light on the diverse CSR orientations and priorities within this geographic context. These findings underscore the importance of tailored CSR strategies within the Visegrad region's corporate landscape to address environmental challenges effectively.</p> Jana Kozáková Renata Skýpalová Dariusz Pieńkowski Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 87 4 692 25 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.692 Investment outlays on nature protection in the context of the share of areas of high environmental value in the regions of Poland <p>The aim of the study is to determine whether there is a relationship between the value of investments made for nature protection and the area of legally protected areas in Poland. The research problem concerns investment outlays incurred for nature protection in relation to the surface of areas with high natural values in Poland, taking into account the division into voivodeships in the years 2002-2021. In general, the area of legally protected areas in Poland did not show high variability in the analysed period, while the assessment of the relationship between the variables showed differences between voivodships. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there is a positive relationship between investment outlays, and the share of legally protected areas and that the level of investment outlays incurred for nature protection is not proportional to the share of legally protected areas.</p> Irena Kropsz-Wydra Hanna Adamska Tomasz Szuk Stanisław Minta Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-07 2024-02-07 87 4 672 18 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.672 Development of green infrastructure as a trend in climate transformation - challenges for Polish cities <p style="font-weight: 400;">The aim of this paper is to characterize the shaping of green infrastructure for the 12 largest Polish cities in 2005-2021. The research was performed using the data from the Central Statistical Office of Poland (GUS). The outline of the research supports the conclusion that large Polish cities should make changes to increase the area of functional green spaces. In line with global and European trends, investments in the development of green infrastructure should be a priority in the development strategies of Polish cities. The development of functional green spaces should make them more biophilic according to the good practices of the greenest cities in Europe and the world.</p> Małgorzata Pięta-Kanurska Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-24 2024-01-24 87 4 562 16 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.562 Managing of types of functions Polish small towns in the context of their developmental challenges <p>The article is related to the background analysis of the development dilemmas and problems of small towns. The quantitative situation of small towns in Poland was included, as well as a recognition of their functional types and identification of development barriers and dilemmas. And its management challenges. Small towns are important polycentric development centres, being a bridge between large agglomerations and rural areas. The article aims to attempt a typology of small towns in terms of their functions. To better understand the existing types of towns, the case study method and the analysis of literature and existing achievements were used, based on which new functional types of small towns were selected.</p> Tadeusz Popławski Michał Grzegorek Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-09 2024-02-09 87 4 618 16 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.618 Financial, spatial and systemic determinants of ESG scoring assigned to commercial banks <p>The aim is to verify which financial, spatial and systemic importance variables interact with ESG scoring. Based on data from 628 banks from 63 countries, a multinomial ordered logit model was built with the explanatory variables of Sustainalytics and Moody's ESG scores. Results indicate that membership in the EU, being an SIB, capitalisation, and revenues have a positive effect on ESG. In contrast, an increase in leverage, NPL ratio, and profitability are associated with a deterioration in scorings. Results differ in terms of the spatial aspect (in the case of Sustainalytics, additionally, location in the US favours ESG scoring) and the spectrum of systemic importance (in the case of Moody's, it is both global and local dimensions). This study is the first attempt to identify common (to different methodologies) determinants of ESG scoring. Its originality is also determined by the demonstration of a relationship between spatial variables and SIB's membership and ESG scoring.</p> Marcin Gospodarowicz Zbigniew Korzeb Paweł Niedziółka Antonio de la Torre Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 87 4 686 25 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.686 The concept of using wind turbine propellers in the construction of acoustic screens as an example of a circular economy model <p class="MDPI17abstract" style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Cambria',serif; color: windowtext;">This paper aims to conceptualise the construction of noise barrier panels from components recovered from used wind turbine propellers. At present, they are mainly waste, but many ideas for their reuse are emerging. Based on previously conducted material tests, the strength of the panels was calculated in accordance with EN 14388. The finite element method and the ANSYS space-claim programme were used to analyse the strength and generate a 3D numerical model of the cracked wind turbine propeller panels. The permissible values given in the standard were compared with those obtained for the deflection of the component.</span></p> Mirosław Broniewicz Filip Broniewicz Karolina Dec Beata Skubiak Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 87 4 726 18 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.726 Location of waste landfills in the aspect of hydrogeological conditions <p>Selecting a site for a landfill should minimise the inevitable ecological effects. The Regulation of the Minister of the Environment (2013) on waste landfills specifies, among others, that it is best to locate a landfill in a place with a natural geological barrier. For landfills other than hazardous and neutral waste, the minimum thickness of the barrier should be ≥1.0 m, and the value of its filtration coefficient k≤1.0·10<sup>– 9</sup> m/s. Another criterion for the location of landfills is the expected piezometric table of groundwater, at least 1 m below the level of the planned excavation. In the paper, the last criterion is subjected to a critical analysis based on the results of my own research. It analyses what the piezometric table of groundwater is and what impact it has on the possible penetration of potential pollutants. The considerations are carried out on the example of the ground predicted for a waste landfill, for which tests necessary to determine the hydrogeological conditions were carried out.</p> Małgorzata Wysocka Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 87 4 729 18 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.729 Critical assessment and recommendations for sewage sludge management in Poland <p>The purpose of the article is to demonstrate practices used to supervise the use of sewage sludge for agricultural purposes. The presented research and conclusions are a trend analysis and are not to be used to penalise entities. Sewage sludge, which comes from the illegal dumping of wastewater into municipal wastewater by industrial plants, contains large amounts of heavy metals. Treatment plants transfer the sludge for agricultural use. Regulations specifically restrict the mode and conditions for such use of sludge. Methods: the research was carried out using a proprietary questionnaire, which is a supplement to the reporting questionnaire of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program implemented by the State Water Company "Wody Polskie". Results: The survey was conducted at 208 wastewater treatment plants in Poland. The results show that the majority of wastewater treatment plants do not properly supervise the process of introducing sewage sludge into the soil. They also lack supervision of how much heavy metals from wastewater are introduced into the soil. This means that there is a very high risk of contamination of agricultural soils. The results obtained could initiate a detailed analysis of this phenomenon in Poland. A comprehensive study of the scale of the practice and its current effects is required to determine the actual condition of soil treated with sewage sludge.</p> Zbigniew Wisniewski Józef Kuczmaszewski Katarzyna Halicka Maciej Kuboń Sławomir Kocira Andrzej Marczuk Beata Oleksiak Copyright (c) 2024 Economics and Environment 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 87 4 641 28 10.34659/eis.2023.87.4.641