Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment 2021-11-10T19:52:32+01:00 Elzbieta Broniewicz, Editor in Chief Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Ekonomia i Srodowisko - Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" ("Ekonomia i Środowisko") is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: 70 points.</p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> PROFESOR BAZYLI POSKROBKO (1941-2021) - UCZONY I NAUCZYCIEL AKADEMICKI, PRZYJACIEL, CZŁOWIEK 2021-11-10T14:31:44+01:00 Tadeusz Borys Stanisław Czaja Bogusław Fiedor <p>+</p> 2021-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment The degree of sustainable development principles implementation in transportation based on an economic analysis of rail buses' life cycle 2021-11-10T18:32:12+01:00 Izabela Dziaduch <p>The article presents an economic analysis of the life cycle of rail buses. As this analysis part, the costs incurred by the user in the exploitation phase of a rail bus were assessed. The cost estimate was based on the author’s own method of forecasting the exploitation costs of a technical object (e.g. means of transport, equipment, machinery), which takes into account the variability of the costs incurred over time. The article also provides the implementation of the aforementioned method, verifying its practical application when estimating the exploitation costs of technical objects. Experimental verification aimed at assessing the usability of the cost forecasting method is the purpose of this article.</p> <p>The verification was carried out for eight single mode X type rail buses produced by the same manufacturer. The experimental verification of the method used to estimate exploitation costs in the life cycle of objects consisted in: 1. Conducting reliability analysis of the exploitation objects in order to obtain data of technical and economic nature; 2. Entering data into the method and calculating cost forecasts; 3. Assessing correctness of the results. <br>The degree of accuracy of the exploitation cost forecast was measured using ex post relative forecast error. The compatibility analysis of the forecast cost values with the actual ones showed their high compatibility, as evidenced by the level of the estimated relative errors (the average error was 4.9%). <br>Therefore, it can be concluded that the prognostic value of the method is relatively high.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The role of urban gardening in building city resilience to climate change 2021-11-10T18:54:20+01:00 Małgorzata Burchard-Dziubińska <p>This article has two purposes. The first is to illustrate the role that urban gardening can play in building city resilience to various negative impacts caused by changes in the economic and social spheres, as well as their connection to global warming. The second goal is to investigate whether Polish cities use urban gardening to strengthen the resilience of socio-economic systems to climate change. Based on literature studies, experiences and contemporary trends in urban gardening in different countries were presented as a key factor for improving the resilience of cities. Some initiatives and projects were described based on dedicated websites. To formulate recommendations for Polish cities, the results of the “Let’s Feel the Climate” project, under which 44 urban adaptation plans were developed, were subjected to critical analysis. Worldwide, the usage of urban gardening to strengthen cities' resilience to climate change is becoming more and more common. Polish cities have yet to join this positive trend.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Remote study and deconsumption – sustainable mobility versus (un)necessary university commuting 2021-11-10T18:59:05+01:00 Monika Paradowska <p>Remote study was one of the many restrictions implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. It resulted in a deconsumption of university commuting which, together with telecommuting, could be considered as a means to implement a sustainable mobility policy. Within this context, this paper investigates student's perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of daily travel before the online learning started with focus on the resultant satisfaction from the use of given means of transport. In this context, we examined the potential for developing more sustainable mobility and possibilities for further deconsumption of transport processes. This was based on the results of a preliminary survey the author conducted online among students of two public universities in Poland. The results obtained, revealed that the respondents associated commuting to university with more advantages than disadvantages. However, these perceptions differed dependent on the most frequently used transport mode. Car users hardly benefited from commuting compared to other transport users and were the group least likely to resign from individual motorisation. Pedestrians and cyclists perceived most benefits and were most satisfied. In general, students expected to continue commuting using the transport modes they used prior to the pandemic. Nevertheless, when students were asked about their “dream transport mode” which enabled the possibility for deconsumption of commuting by way of a cheap and commonly available teleportation, private car turned out to be a better option than teleportation among students commuting either by car or by urban public transport. In such a hypothetical situation, only car users and active commuters were not prepared to change their transport behaviour.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dependence of CO2 emissions on energy consumption and economic growth in the European Union: a panel threshold model 2021-11-10T19:22:05+01:00 Igor Petruška Jana Chovancová Eva Litavcová <p>This work aims to analyse the dependence of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions on primary energy consumption at different Gross Domestic Product (GDP) levels in 28 European countries. Data for the years 1995-2019 were used to develop the models. Random Effects, Fixed Effects, a nonlinear panel threshold model and a continuous kink model were used in the panel data analysis. The work <br>shows that the dependence of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions on energy consumption varies at different levels of GDP. <br>The model with two threshold values, which determine three modes of behaviour, proves to be the most suitable. As GDP levels increase, the regression coefficient of the dependence of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions on energy consumption decreases. Understanding the relationship between these variables is essential for informed and evidence-based decision-making and adopting new or revision of existing energy and climate policies and strategies at the EU and national levels.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The quality of selected municipal services during the Covid-19 pandemic in the opinion of students of Cracow Universities 2021-11-10T19:31:32+01:00 Jakub Bartak Dariusz Firszt Marek Jabłoński Łukasz Jabłoński <p>The paper aims to present the results of surveys of students' opinions on the quality of municipal services available in Krakow and its changes during the Covid-19 pandemic. The analysis covered most basic municipal services, in particular water, heat, and public transport. Opinions on the public services were collected through surveys carried out twice, in 2019 and 2021, on a representative group of students of several major Cracow universities. The analysis revealed that, despite the challenges associated with the Covid-19 pandemic, the municipal services' general quality has not deteriorated.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Analytical view on perceptions of selected environmental problems in Eastern Slovakia: a generational perspective 2021-11-10T19:40:01+01:00 Roman Novotny Martin Rovnak Lenka Stofejova Peter Adamisin Matus Bakon <p>The aim of the paper was to evaluate and compare respondents' views from eastern Slovakia on selected environmental issues from a generational perspective. The study used an online questionnaire survey to collect the data. According to the results, each generation views the severity of environmental problems differently, with Generation Y placing the highest priority on them and the Baby Boomers placing the lowest. Based on the performed statistical testing, we can confirm a statistically significant difference between individual generations of respondents on the question of the Covid-19 pandemic's positive impact on the environment, but no statistically significant difference between individual generations of respondents on whether they think waste sorting and recycling reduces the amount of waste deposited in landfills or whether they think waste sorting and recycling increases the amount of waste deposited in landfills.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Non-financial reporting regarding natural environment in public companies in the energy, fuel and gas sector in 2019 2021-11-10T19:52:32+01:00 Katarzyna Dembowska <p>The article's objective is a presentation of the non-financial reporting practice in the scope of issues regarding the natural environment in public companies based on the example of the energy, fuel and gas sectors. The study covers WIG20, WIG30 and mWIG40 companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2019. The research method applied in the article is based on a case study. The article starts with the theoretical part regarding the disclosure of non-financial information. The second part presents non-financial reporting with special consideration given to the natural environment, based on public companies operating in the energy, fuel and gas sector.</p> 2021-11-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2021