Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment 2022-07-11T01:11:31+02:00 Elzbieta Broniewicz, Editor in Chief Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Welcome to the website of the Journal "Ekonomia i Srodowisko - Economics and Environment"</strong></p> <p>The journal "Economics and Environment" ("Ekonomia i Środowisko") is a leading Polish quarterly journal in the economics of environment and natural resources. It has existed since 1992. The reference version of the Journal is the paper version.</p> <p> </p> <p>This is the Journal of the <a href="">Polish Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.</a></p> <p>Value according to the Polish Ministry of Education and Science: <strong>100 points.</strong></p> <p><strong>Fields and disciplines of science:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Engineering and technology:</strong> architecture and urban planning, civil engineering and transport, environmental engineering, mining and energy</p> <p><strong>2. Agricultural sciences:</strong> forestry</p> <p><strong>3. Social sciences:</strong> economics and finance, social and economic geography and<br />spatial management, management and quality studies</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> PDF Summaries in Polish 2022-07-09T14:12:49+02:00 Ekonomia i Środowisko <p>Summaries in Polish</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 European Green Deal – research directions. a systematic literature review 2022-07-11T01:10:13+02:00 Joanna Ejdys Danuta Szpilko <p>The article provided a classification of scientific research relating to European Green Deal (EGD) issues to assess their compatibility with areas identified in the EGD strategy document and identify emerging future research directions. A systematic literature review was based on bibliometric analysis and focused on articles in Scopus and Web of Science databases. The systematic literature review aimed to identify, integrate and evaluate research on the selected topic based on clearly defined criteria. Research query included (TITLE-ABS-KEY (“EU” OR europ*) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY (“green deal”) ) in the case of Scopus and TS = (“EU” OR europ*) AND “green deal”) in the case of Web of Science. In total, 641 publication records were qualified for analysis. The bibliometric analysis allowed identifying eight thematic clusters and linking them to the eight areas of the European Green Deal strategy. The bibliometric analysis enabled the identification of eight thematic areas of international research undertaken in relation to the European Green Deal. These cover a variety of topics from social sciences, engineering, agriculture, sciences and natural sciences. Clusters included: Energy, circular economy, industry, building, mobility, food, biodiversity and pollution.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Exemplifying the Zero Waste Concept in smart cities 2022-07-11T01:09:38+02:00 Dorota Jelonek Dorota Walentek <p>Due to the environmental imbalance on our planet, the concept of zero waste is gaining importance day by day. It is particularly important in the aspect of production and consumption cycle management and responsible waste management in urban space. The aim of this article is to exemplify methods of reducing waste in smart cities according to the author's Waste Management for Generation, Environment, and Gains (WM2GEG) scheme. An additional aim was to select the most effective ways of rational waste management in smart cities. A structured interview method was used to collect data, and the research sample was selected using the Smart City Index 2020. The study identified environmentally and socially friendly and economically beneficial methods of rational waste management, such as composting organic waste, creating underground waste containers, and incinerating waste with energy recovery. Specific ways to reduce waste are also presented, such as banning disposable packaging and obtaining energy from renewable sources.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Urban regeneration and sustainable development – an attempt to assess a sustainable character of revitalisation processes in Poland 2022-07-10T01:08:26+02:00 Edyta Tomczyk Paulina Basińska <p>A study conducted for the purposes of the article aimed at assessing the degree of sustainable development achieved in the urban regeneration processes carried out in Poland. It covered a study of urban regeneration programmes adopted in the cities with poviat rights, where these processes are regularly monitored. Based on the analysis and interpretation of these documents, on the grounds of a methodology created for the purpose, the conducted processes were assessed in the context of the sustainable development principles. The aim of the article is to answer following questions: (1) to what extent the implemented projects fit into this paradigm, (2) to what extent they contribute to its achievement, and, more generally, (3) how to examine the issue of sustainable development in regeneration processes – as the current study is the first such research in Poland. The study which proves that, for the moment, the revitalisation activities are not too advanced, nor too harmonious, should lead to further, more in-depth research on the subject.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Methods of sustainable space management in revitalisation processes – comparative analysis of urban operating tools used in the Polish cities 2022-07-10T01:08:14+02:00 Emilia Grotowska Katarzyna Spadło <p>The paper attempts to analyse the instruments of urban operating tools used for spatial management in the urban regeneration processes. A comparative analysis of planning documents prepared for the implementation of revitalisation policy, i.e. spatial development concepts and Local Revitalisation Plans, was carried out. These instruments were juxtaposed with master plans, commonly used in the revitalisation practice by German cities but by some Polish cities as well. The article presents mechanisms of the impact of urban operating tools on the scope and nature of the urban regeneration processes. The scale of the impact, understood as the pace of the implementation of the sustainable development goals in degraded urban areas, was also assessed.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Are EU environmental regulations consistent with the concept of internalisation of externalities – the case of Polish electricity sector 2022-07-11T01:11:31+02:00 Mariusz Kudełko <p>The article’s goal is to examine whether the existing EU environmental regulations implemented in the Polish electricity sector are consistent with the concept of internalisation of external costs. The tool used in the research is the partial equilibrium model of the mid-term development of the Polish power sector. There are two scenarios. The first ‘base’ scenario assumes gradual decarbonisation of the Polish energy sector. In the ‘int’ scenario, the structure of energy production results from the full internalisation of external costs. The structural changes in the ‘base’ scenario are a significant challenge. All coal-based technologies are being drastically phased out and will be replaced by RES and nuclear technologies. The climate policy leading to a gradual reduction of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in Poland makes sense, assuming much higher external costs of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions (€65/Mg CO<sub>2</sub> ) than those assumed in this study.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Environmental insurance and ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems – analysis of the willingness to implement systemic solutions relevant to insurance 2022-07-11T01:10:36+02:00 Malwina Lemkowska Dorota Wiśniewska <p>The first purpose of the research was to assess the dependence between the organisational decision-makers willingness to implement systemic solutions relevant to insurance (RSSs) and the attributes (systemic, awareness-related and organisational) of an organisation managed in accordance with ISO 14001. Another purpose was to identify the motivators that drive entities to implement additional system elements.<br />Earlier studies suggest that the structures of currently implemented ISO 14001 EMSs should be modified in order to increase their utility for the process of insurance provision. <br />The research problem was solved based on data obtained through an online survey among organisations implementing and certified ISO 14001 EMSs in Poland. Depending on the type of variables, the independence chi-square test, U-Mann-Whitney test, and the test of Spearman’s rank correlation, among others, were used for analysis. <br />The results of the study may help build integrated environmental risk management tools. They indicate the legitimacy of using non-insurance motivators (e.g. reduction of environmental fees) to achieve the desired EMS structure in the organisation from the insurers' point of view. At the same time, they emphasise the need to build environmental risk awareness (including, among other things, the risk of liability for environmental damage and its severity) to achieve the above.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment How viewing a forest affects willingness to pay of users and non-users in Contingent Valuation Method? 2022-07-11T01:11:10+02:00 Edyta Sidorczuk-Pietraszko Anna Matel Tomasz Poskrobko Dariusz Andrejuk <p>In Contingent Valuation studies, users generally declare willingness to pay (WTP) higher than non-users. This study attempts to investigate if viewing the good during CV survey has different impact on users and non-users WTPs. A framed field experiment was conducted in which users and non-users were surveyed in two locations - one with a view of the forest and the other without it. Our study showed that the WTPs of users were significantly higher than those of non-users only when respondensts did not see forest during the survey. However, when the experiment was conducted in a location where the respondents could see the forest - the difference disappeared. Our results also show that the relationship between declared WTP and both the respondents’ socio-demographic status and their environmental attitudes were weaker among respondents surveyed in a location with a forest view. We believe that the increase in WTP of non-users is temporary and represents a kind of bias. This in turn may be relevant in the design of CVM studies.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Perspectives of Polish organic farming development in the aspect of the European Green Deal 2022-07-11T01:09:49+02:00 Karol Kociszewski <p>The paper aims to examine the determinants for the development of organic farming in Poland under the present conditions associated with membership in the European Union (EU). The study is based on analyses of secondary sources and a nationwide survey among organic farmers. Organic farming in the EU is a subject to development under the influence of the strategies related to the European Green Deal. Polish organic agriculture developed dynamically after the EU accession. However, the process reversed from 2013 due to the unstable domestic support policy. The barriers are poor connections between farmers and distributors, bureaucratic procedures and low profitability. A significant chance for the development is the expected demand growth. The most important factors encouraging farmers were associated with environmental aspects and the use of labour. The further growth is conditioned by the better-organized policy of Polish organisations involved in agricultural policy.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Small-scale farms in the environmental sustainability of rural areas. Opinions of farmers from Poland, Romania and Lithuania 2022-07-11T01:10:57+02:00 Sebastian Stępień Katarzyna Smędzik-Ambroży Anna Matuszczak Aleksandra Tosovic-Stevanovic <p>The aim of the article is to assess the environmental sustainability of small-scale faming. The authors tried to reach the farmers' subjective opinion,&nbsp; their way of thinking, attitudes and determinants affecting environmental performance. The use of in-depth interviews gave a chance to draw reliable and accurate conclusions on the analysed topic and register many elements that could be omitted using quantitative methods. Thus, the work forms a complementary part of research on the sustainability of small-scale farms, which is its main added value. Furthermore, the use of data from three EU member states - Poland, Romania and Lithuania - provided a basis for comparative analysis. Conclusions proved that small farms perform important environmental functions in rural areas. It results from the very essence of this type of farms, based on the cultivation of traditions and experience passed down from generation to generation, as well as from the family nature of these units.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Use of hydraulic model in real water loss reduction and water distribution network operational cost lowering 2022-07-10T01:08:02+02:00 Artur Zajkowski Łukasz Wysocki Piotr Tuz Izabela Bartkowska Wojciech Kruszynski <p>Most of the small water companies supplying a small number of consumers with water are struggling with the extremely tight budget, often making any large-scale modernisation impossible. In effect network managed by these companies is often very leaky and unreliable. One possible and cheap way of leakage reduction is the reduction of average pressure in the network. Thanks to new computing technologies, the device selection process for pressure reduction is accurate and easy to do. This study uses the hydraulic model to select required pressure-reducing valves and correct locations accurately and adequately approximate the resulting absolute water loss reduction thanks to this approach.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Analysis of aerobic and anaerobic sewage sludge disposal concepts 2022-07-11T01:10:47+02:00 Izabela Bartkowska Dariusz Wawrentowicz Lech Dzienis <p>The article aimed to analyze the concept of modernisation of sludge management prepared for an exemplary sewage sludge treatment plant. Four variants of solutions, based on different processes, aerobic (oxygenic), anaerobic or – aerobic – anaerobic, were discussed. The article presents the characteristics of essential elements of the proposed solutions. The technical and technological parameters of each of the variants are exposed. The expected capital expenditure and basic operating costs are presented. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the options has also been carried out. The analysed technological processes ensure obtaining hygienically and sanitary safe end products. They contribute significantly to minimising the amount of sewage sludge. The most economically efficient, with the lowest average annual costs, is the variant with the application of anaerobic thermo-philic-mesophilic sludge stabilisation. The highest average annual costs were obtained for the variant <br />with drying and incineration of sludge.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Development of environmental policy instruments for renewable energy sources by municipalities 2022-07-11T01:10:24+02:00 Waldemar Kozłowski <p>An increase in the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption is one of the priorities of the European Union. Poland should have achieved the level of 21% renewable energy by 2030. Research problems discussed in the article: lack of studies in communes regarding the comprehensive assessment of unused reserves of energy from renewable energy; lack of analyses regarding the costs of obtaining and using power from renewable sources, lack of clear vision of communes as subjects in the climate and energy-related policy. Considering these research problems, this paper analyses the instruments of support for energy generation from renewable sources applied by communes. The study covers one hundred communes in the voivodship of Warmia and Mazury. The following hypothesis can be put forward in the methodological context: renewable energy use in a commune depends mainly on the undertaken activities and local initiatives.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Analysis of the possibility of using plastic post-production waste in construction 2022-07-10T01:08:36+02:00 Robert Grygo Kevin Bujnarowski Jolanta Anna Prusiel <p>This paper presents the possibility of managing plastic post-production waste, i.e. ordinary and heat-shrinkable film, in the construction sector. For this purpose, two types of lightweight 16 mm aggregate were produced from plastics, using proprietary technology (i.e. polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and PET/PVC/OPS (MIX) mixtures). The raw material was sourced from post-production waste, generated during the production of film labels. The results of the experimental testing of aggregate properties (bulk density, grain density, absorbability, compressive strength) are presented, the aggregate being sourced from recycled plastics. This paper presents the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic, as well as other popular lightweight aggregates (Certyd and Kermazyt) used in construction. In addition, the financial efficiency of the production of lightweight aggregate from the by-products of plastic label production was analysed. The economic analysis has shown that the use of plastic waste for the production of lightweight aggregate is rational, not only in terms of environmental protection, but also the financial benefits to companies that generate significant amounts of plastic waste.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Environmental, social and economic determinants of sustainable development in the process of managing municipalities illustrated using the example of the lesser Poland voivodeship 2022-07-11T01:10:02+02:00 Anna Brzozowska Justyna Łukomska-Szarek Justyna Imiołczyk-Sepczuk <p>In an age of climate change and increasing negative environmental effects of the development of urban agglomeration, it is becoming more and more important to implement sustainable development principles in governing urban municipalities (Polish: gminy). The three areas of sustainable development: social, economic and environmental, have been extensively explored in scientific research over recent years. These studies have mostly covered international or regional areas and, to a lesser extent, local ones. Six environmental, economic and social indicators of sustainable development were examined for 14 urban municipalities located in Lesser Poland Voivodeship. Only a selected group of indicators from these areas was assessed due to limited data availability. Social and economic measures showed a strong Spearman's rank correlation. Based on the collected research material, benchmarking was developed for the units under evaluation, indicating that over the period between the year 2014 and 2019, the city of Krakow occupied the highest position, on average, among urban municipalities of Lesser Poland Voivodeship, considering the measures analysed.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment Supporting local economic development as a motive for purchasing organic food 2022-07-11T01:11:20+02:00 Adam Czudec Teresa Miś Dariusz Zając <p>The aim of this paper is to assess the significance of organic food purchases by consumers in Poland – motivated by supporting the local economy – against the background of other factors shaping consumer behaviour. The empirical material consists of the results of a survey among 850 consumers of organic food in Poland.&nbsp; The empirical material was analysed using Pearson’s chi-squared test of independence and the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. The study shows that for a large group of organic food consumers, supporting the local economy appears to be an important motive for its purchase. The only factor significantly differentiating the two groups of consumers (motivated or not motivated by supporting the local economy) was the level of family income. The study allowed us to conclude that among consumers motivated by supporting the local economy, attitudes described as reflexive localism (the motive of supporting the local economy associated with concern for the natural environment) predominate.</p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekonomia i Środowisko - Economics and Environment